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In mechanical machining, significant energy use can be linked to carbon emissions and an increase in manufacturing cost.When machining a given component, the basic energy state dominates the total energy footprint as compared to tool-tipenergy. Thus, the choice of machine tool is an important consideration in reducing the energy demand per productmachined. In this work, a standardized NC toolpath was milled on machine tools in Singapore and the UK. The worksignificantly contributes to the knowledge on energy intensity…
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INTRODUCTION
Blood transfusion can be a life-saving
intervention especially in such conditions like
postpartum haemorrhage and massive
bleeding following trauma or surgery. In many
settings, blood transfusion is the most
commonly employed procedure among
hospital in-patients.. However, like all
treatments, it may result in acute or delayed
complications and carries the risk of
Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs).
Great advances in transfusion medicine have,
however, reduced the incidence of various
hazards arising from blood transfusion
significantly. This chapter provides a
simplified…
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INTRODUCTION
Blood transfusion can be a life-saving
intervention especially in such conditions like
postpartum haemorrhage and massive
bleeding following trauma or surgery. In many
settings, blood transfusion is the most
commonly employed procedure among
hospital in-patients.. However, like all
treatments, it may result in acute or delayed
complications and carries the risk of
Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs).
Great advances in transfusion medicine have,
however, reduced the incidence of various
hazards arising from blood transfusion
significantly. This chapter provides a
simplified…
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1. Introduction
Since discovery of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and subsequent isolation
of the virus (HIV) more than 30 million have been infected [1]. Sub-Saharan Africa was
affected most with HIV infection with estimated 2/3rd of the World’s HIV infected people.
Nigeria is the largest populated country in Africa and it was estimated that about 3 million
of the population is infected with human immunodeficiency virus [2]. Thus Nigeria is the
second largest country after South Africa with largest HIV…
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The issue of taxation of religious bodies in Nigeria which has generated serious controversy will be discussed in this chapter. We shall approach it in two ways. Firstly we shall consider the church/mosque workers, pastors, imams etc. and secondly we shall discuss the church/mosque as a corporate body.


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When General Sanni Abacha took over power in November 1993 from the then Interim National Government led by Chief Ernest Shonekan, the nation was faced with many sanctions by the International Community through the United Nations Organization. Nigerian crude oil was rejected by the community of nations owing to what they termed gross human rights abuse in Nigeria. Nigeria became a pariah nation while income from oil which forms the major sources of revenue of government was not forthcoming, value…
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The proper organ of government to administer tax in Nigeria is the Federal Inland Revenue Service1 especially when the tax relates to Companies Income Tax, Value Added Tax and other federally controlled taxes under the Constitution2 except Customs and Excise Duties whose responsibility for collection is vested in the Nigeria Customs Services.


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Payment of tax is not a new phenomenon. It is as old as the government itself. Generally, tax collectors have been looked upon as the enemy of the society and in order to curb the social stigma of tax collectors, the government devised the system of legalizing same by ensuring that payment of taxes are statutorily backed up.


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A tax is a compulsory contribution to government without reference to services rendered or benefits returned. Tax is a form of revenue and the term revenue denotes income that does not have to be returned. Non-revenue income consists of borrowing, which must be returned to the lender after use.


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Since the various states‘ Houses of Assembly have refused to amend or abrogate outrageous life pensions for their former colleagues and ex-governors of their states, the discourse had also refused to die down too.


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Commercial law is notoriously difficult to define but it must be defines so as to make it easy for us to chart a course in the subject.


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This book titled “Process Instrumentation, Dynamics and Control for Chemical Engineers” is a compendium of measurements in engineering practice with specific applications to Chemical Engineering. The Chapters are so designed by the authors that each Chapter deals extensively with particular aspects of measurement, method and device used.
The book is divided into ten chapters. The first chapter deals with performance characteristics of measurement systems with focus on statics and dynamic characteristics; Chapter two deals with pressure measurement methods; Chapter three…
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Mass Transfer I is a book designed by the to introduce Chemical Engineering Students to Mass Transfer Operations in the Chemical Engineering and Allied Industries which majorly involves separation of mixtures.
Basics such as Fundamentals of Mass Transfer Operations, Criteria for Choice of Specific Mass Transfer Operations, Methods of Conducting Mass Transfer Operations and Design Factors for Mass Transfer Equipment were discussed in Chapter One. Details of Molecular Diffusion in Fluids, Field Equation for Unsteady Mass Transfer Coefficients were also…
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The synthesis and application of silver nanoparticles are increasingly becoming attractive.
Hence, a critical examination of the various factors needed for the synthesis of silver
nanoparticles as well as the characterization is imperative. In light of this, we addressed
in this chapter, the nitty-gritty on the operational parameters (factors) and characterization
relevant to synthesis of silver nanoparticle. The following characterization protocols
were discussed in the context of silver nanoparticle synthesis. These protocols include
spectroscopic techniques such as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy…
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Agriculture and food have a greater role to play in order to achieve sustainable development
goals. Therefore, there is a need to put an end to the effect of pathogens on food
quality and safety. Pathogens have been recognized as one of the major factors causing
a reduction in profitable food production. The conventional methods of detecting pathogens
are time-consuming and expensive for the farmers in rural areas. In view of this, this
chapter reviews the biosensors that have been…
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Electrical power systems are interconnected A.C. network comprising generators, transformers, transmission lines, cables and loads. The route taken by the flow of power is determined by switching circuit breakers, which adjust the network configuration.


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This chapter focuses on research designs under the following headings: survey and experimental research designs.  Survey research designs comprise descriptive, historical, and ex-post-facto research designs while experimental research designs.


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Liberalization as a policy of globalisation encourages large scale acquisition of land.  The implementation of the policy of liberalization in Nigeria’s oil industry has resulted to increase intensification of oil exploration activities.  The result of this event is the annexation of large scale of arable land in rural communities for oil exploration related activities.  Women make up large proportion of land user in the rural communities while their traditional livelihood activities depend on land.  It is obvious that…
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We are in a fast globalizing world in which Nigeria cannot be left behind.  The emergence of Nigerian women in politics, governance and many boardrooms across the landscape of corporate governance came to limelight in the Fourth Republic.  Global trends towards transformation in gender issue have led to a rethinking of the existing social order that used to be male territory.  The cultural, economic and religious factors that kept women languishing in the lower cadre are being challenged. …
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The main focus of this chapter is to identify and discuss the positive and negative impacts of gobalisation, and by so doing find out if the latter outweighs the former.  To do this, we divide this chapter into seven parts.  The first part introduces the chapter, while the second and third parts conceptually define or clarify feminism, globalism and globalization.  The fourth part tries to establish a nexus between feminism and globalism but the fifth part identifies and…
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In several ways, globalization and the spread of neoliberal ideas have shaped and continue to shape the economic and social systems of every region, including Africa.  Increasing internationalization, the growing influence of multinational corporations and other holders of private capital, and the roles of international financial institutions, most notably the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), have exerted enormous influence on domestic policies in many African countries.  Sometimes the need to conform to the new universal…
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Introduction
Since discovery of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and subsequent isolation
of the virus (HIV) more than 30 million have been infected [1]. Sub-Saharan Africa was
affected most with HIV infection with estimated 2/3rd of the World’s HIV infected people.
Nigeria is the largest populated country in Africa and it was estimated that about 3 million
of the population is infected with human immunodeficiency virus [2]. Thus Nigeria is the
second largest country after South Africa with largest HIV infected…
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Abstract
Antioxidants play important roles in growth, development, detoxification, and effective immune responses. It is reported that the serum
concentrations of antioxidants are altered in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there is the dearth of
information on the effects of HIV on the quality of breast milk, especially its antioxidants components. The breast milk of lactating mothers
with HIV contains all the antioxidants that are normally found in human milk, although there are slight alterations. Breast milk…
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Poverty, as an issue in population in Nigeria, is borne out of the fact that Nigeria is experiencing high rate of population explosion with the fastest growing economy in Africa.  In spite of this development, the nation’s population dynamic are attacked by poverty from different perspectives.  This paper examines the roles and challenges of population communication in Nigeria with Particular emphasis on poverty.  The paper is built on development media theory and it x-rays the causes and effects…
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INTRODUCTION
-Shile one could convincingly argue that the existence of free and fair
elections as a mechanism for the change, transfer or retention of power
by the government of a state is not synonymous to democratic
government in that democracy is an encompassing concept and
practice that embodies free and fair elections and other features such as
the existence of independent electoral body, independent judiciary,
entrenchment of fundamental human rights among others.
The point however, is that, free and fair…
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The concept Public Administration is a fusion of two basic dictions that are germane to the field of Public Administration. The first is the term Public, which could be
said to be synonymous with governmental activities that exist or designed to serve the interest of the people. Thus, the term is associated with government activities or
business. Administration on the other hand is the organization and management of men and materials resources geared towards accomplishing organizational
objectives.


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ntroduction
Nationalism, no doubt, is a covert and overt support
mechanism or ingredient needed for the survival of a state.
This is because it encompasses the orientation or the state
of mind of the people and the manifestation of action which
constitute functional input into the socio-economic and
political workings of a-state.
However, the conceptualization of nationalism differs
from state to state and region to region depending on political
experiences. For instance, where the concept of state hood
preceded nation…
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News technology has radically changed the concept of news.  In the olden days, people defined news as an account of what has happened.  Today, that definition of news cannot stand erect in the journalism sea of reasoning because through satellite, people can watch events live as they are happening.  Journalists no longer wait for events to take place before reporting.  As events are taking place, they can be reported live to the audience courtesy of technology.


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News technology has radically changed the concept of news.  In the olden days, people defined news as an account of what has happened.  Today, that definition of news cannot stand erect in the journalism sea of reasoning because through satellite, people can watch events live as they are happening.  Journalists no longer wait for events to take place before reporting.  As events are taking place, they can be reported live to the audience courtesy of technology.


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In writing feature, the big tabloids in Nigeria have a galaxy of famous writers who have had years of repetitive feature writing experience yet many of them have thrown the feature writing rule book out of the window. The result is that their feature articles scarcely follow the rules. Some of them have forgotten that there are well tried ground rules for feature writing as there are for news reporting. Journalism profession today needs better writers than ever…
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As far back in 1830, the term editorial was used as a label to designate a statement of the editor’s opinion. Later in the 20th century, the history of editorials witnessed a remarkable breakthrough. Around this period, newspapers across the globe had designated a separate editorial page for editorials and letters to the editor. This distinctive location or positioning of the editorial page around this era is worth noting. It is always in a left hand page, usually…
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Product details

  • Series:1
  • Paperback:128 pages
  • Publisher:CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1 edition (July 11, 2017)
  • Language:English
  • ISBN-10:1548826472
  • ISBN-13:978-1548826475
  • Product Dimensions: 5 x 0.3 x 11 inches

 

 

 


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This book is written out of the author’s several years of professional and academic experience in Medical Laboratory Science.
The textbook is well-planned to extensively cover the working principle and uses of laboratory instruments. Common Laboratory techniques (including principle and applications) are also discussed. Descriptive diagrams/schematics for better understanding are included.
Teachers and students pursuing courses in different areas of Laboratory Science, Basic and medical/health sciences at undergraduate and postgraduate levels will find the book useful. Researchers and interested readers…
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This textbook on Basic Immunochemistry is written to provide academic in formation on Immunology and Immunochemistry for teachers’ band students of Undergraduate and Postgraduate level pursuing courses in Basic Medical and Biological Sciences. It contains Basic concepts and theoretical overview of Immunology and Immunochemistry. Principles, Procedure and Applications immunochemical techniques are extensively discussed.
Interested readers will find this book interacting and educative


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The police are a very critical institution of government in any human society because of their role in maintenance of law and order.  Besides, the police provides a veritable instrument for protection of lives and property of citizens, promote socio-economic and political ideals.  By virtue of police responsibilities, power, and nearness to the people, members of the public look up to the police for justice, protection and peace (Tamuno 1986:2).  In Nigeria, since independence in 1960, the police…
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Conflict is a global issue and is synonymous with man and his existence.Conflict is part and parcel of human nature as two or more people and nationscannot relate without friction or one form of conflict or the other. Conflict initself is a form of interaction or relations. It is argued by scholars of diplomacyand international relations that conflict or war as is a medium of diplomacy, while diplomacy entails the totality of interaction or relations between States or…
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Over the years, education has been recognized to be the foundation of sustainable development in any society.  Worldwide, education is becoming more important as people are showing strong desire to acquire educational skills, be it developing and developed countries.  Also, education is being provided by both private and public sectors in the sovereignty of nations.  This position is quite similar in Nigerian situation, despite the fact taht the nation is recently assuming the position of active participation of…
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The importance of globalization of marketing strategies is no doubt fraught with uncertainties and anxiety borne out of the determination of nations to overcome the obstacles and challenges of the future, particularly as we progress deep into the 21st century. The research work focused at the impact of globalization on marketing strategies. It is observed that developed nations find it easier to distribute their products around the globe which other countries could not. However, the research work is…
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With the ever-increasing global competition and the economic demands of our time, there is added pressure for employees to achieve ambitious performance goals while also addressing more complex ethical issues.  The individual and groups that have an interest, claim, or stake in an organisation and in what it does are known as organisational stakeholders.  In orer to survive and prosper, an organisation must effectively satisfy its stakeholders.  If stakeholders do not receive these benefits, thery may withdraw their…
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With only a few years until the 2015 deadline to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon stated in The Millennium Development Goal Report (2010), "Time is short, We must seize this historic moment to act responsibly and decisively for the common good," These well-chosen words strongly urge governments to engage constructively and decisively in actions that can help actualize the goals.  The Secretary-General also noted, "We have made important progress in this effort,…
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Human rights violations are usually associated with conflict. That is why a former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson, argued that “today?s human rights violations are the causes of tomorrow?s conflicts” (Bishop, 2001:2). Similarly, Kenny (1997:1) asserted that “human rights violations are a cause, and not merely a consequence of insecurity and instability.” This means that addressing the problem of human rights violations may serve to deescalate conflict by instilling a sense of trust, confidence and justice…
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Like physicians searching for the cure to AIDS, the Nigerian government has been searching for a solution to the struggle for justice, equity and development in the Niger Delta. The search in post-colonial period started in 1962 when the Niger Delta Development Board (NDDB) was set up to serve in advisory capacity and provide government with information that would lead to the alleviation of the plight of the area in conjunction with the Development Act of 1961. The…
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Public administrators work in organizations that are legal entities.  Such organizations are established by law and operate within the framework of the law.  This means that administrators must be guided by the provisions of existing laws in the performance of their duties.  Consequently, an understanding of some principles of administrative law will help to ensure taht public administrators perform their duties effectively.  This will help to prevent conflicts and tensions between management and staff on the one hand…
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After almost two decades of protests, violence and armed resistance in which civil society, communities and militants played the vanguard roles, accompanied by massive militarization and military actions, the Niger Delta entered into a new period in its history in October 2009. Based on the promise of the federal government to address the problems of the Niger Delta as part of a seven point agenda, the militants in the region accepted a federal amnesty, disarmament and cessation of…
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