All OER Journal Articles


The major motive of any business organization is to make profit.  This is particularly so in the private sector.  In the public sector, the forefront aim is to satisfy the needs of the masses/to achieve either of the managerial aims; the management of the enterprise should put its axe together.  This entails planning, a good planning  initiative commences with adequate budgetary process.  This calls for a team effort.   The team should be ggg embracing.  The decision making process…
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Decision making is an important aspect of planning.  Planning has primacy in the functions of management: planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling.  All these are activities of Production, Marketing, Finance, Human Resource Management, Purchasing and Innovation which are activities in management.  Decisions are unique in the sense that there must be courses of action to select from.  Moreover, decisions are of three types namely those under certainty; uncertainty and risk.  In certainty, the decision maker is sure of…
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Demand is the willingness and ability of buying a product at a given price within a specific period of time.  It is a flow concept as it has quantity and time dimensions.  Demand forecasting is not a process that involves a crystal ball.  It rather involves carrying forward past data.  The main objective of the paper is to do a theoretical review of demand forecasting, solve a demand forecasting example and to set a multiple regression example.  Price…
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The interest of this work was aroused by the perception of workers’ wrong attitude towards female executives in Nigerian organizations.  Considering the fact that female executives are not adequately represented in firms, it became imperative that organizations where females are in management positions should be looked into and suggestions made for the right attitude by workers to female executives to bring out the best in them in the performance of their jobs.  This assignment, therefore, is undertaken to…
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The purpose of going to business is to make profit, thus cost minimization and profit maximization one of the objective of management.  The more cost is reduced the greatest the profit, thus, the purpose of transportation cost to the barest contribution or profit to the organization.  The transportation problem is a peculiar form of the linear programming model, however solve using a different technique apart from the simplex method


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Third world is that part of the world that has developing countries located in Africa, Latin America and Asia.  Third World Development consists of an increase in socio-economic condition from a lower to a more desirable state of Development challenges are barriers, setbacks, problems and threats that make it difficult for the countries in the Third world not to move from a lower socio-economic condition to a higher one. A millennium consists of 1000 years.  So the Third…
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This paper takes a critical at the dimensions of social responsibility and the challengers of enforcing organizational goals in Nigeria. Business leaders are expected to develop strategy policy as regards it role in the environment where it is operating. Such policy formulation is in the area of social responsibility that would help to care for host community. Emphasis must be on the needs of the society, implement the programme develop and fully communicate its activities through social audit. It is…
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Research is the process of investigating or finding out something new or improvement of poor result in a systematic way thereby increasing knowledge.  National development is that increase of the national income or total volume of production of goods and services of a country accompanied by improvements in the total standard of living of the people.  It is a total upward structural shift of the social system in terms of a capacity to produce, supply, distribute and consume…
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Motivation is a will to do.  It is a psychological process.  It aimed at achieving organizational objectives.  Abraham Maslow (2008) identified 8 needs.  The new needs are those of knowledge and understanding, duty and esthetic, and transcending going beyond ordinary.


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      In the early 1900’s when banking business was introduced into the country, the business wasn’t that progressing and attractive, not until in the 1960’s when training and manpower development has taken place.  With so many people highlighting on the impact of training and manpower development in an organization, Iyayi (2005) described training and manpower development as the activities that are directed towards providing the people of an organization with the skills, attitudes and motivation needed to perform…
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The Human Resource is the totality of the skills, potentialities and competencies of the human being.  The human resource along with other resources materials, money, time, knowledge and energy are the inputs which have to be transformed by the process made up of machines, methods and maintenance to get the outputs of goods and services.  Human Resource management is the function area that is responsible for managing people at work.  Right from 1903 to 2010, the crude oil…
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The study examines the effectiveness of queuing models in the establishment and services organizatins.  It attempts to find a balance between cost associated with having to wait for service and the costs of providing a fast service.  Queuing model are set of tools for analyzing such problems concerned with providing service to customers. It helps to determine the Distribution of inter-arrival times.  Distribution of service times and gives the number of servers.  Queuing theory system have an effect…
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The main objective of the paper is to do a theoretical discussion of Due Process in government procurement vis-à-vis challenges its implementation in Nigeria.  It becomes necessary that contract; government agency should have proceedings, transparency without favouritism and corruptible tendencies, which should be implementable and enforceable in Nigeria.  The paper examines the background problems and subsidiaries objectives of Due Process Procurement in Nigeria where also revealed.  The assessment of the operational structure(s) arising from the different levels of…
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The main objective of this work is to critically examine cost-effective reporting standard in small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria.  There is a considerable debate over the appropriate role for small and medium scale enterprises.  Years back, there has been controversy as to whatever the current financial reporting system for small and medium scale enterprise (SMEs) is adequate.  It has been encountered in different countries of the world, including Nigeria.  This study tries to look into the…
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The study of consumer behavior is primarily concerned with finding out how individuals, groups and organizations select, buy, use and dispose of goods, services, ideas or experiences in orders to satisfy their needs and wants. This paper focuses on the impact of the process of producing and consuming of goods and services on the environment in which we live. It traces the history of the concept of the environment and examines the sustainability questions in an attempt to…
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 A business is defined as a venture which is established by an Individual, a group, an Organisation, a Government or a set of Government with the aim of making profit.  Profit is the positive difference between total revenue and cost.  Research means to search again or to do a cursory examination on an event, an activity or an issue of interest.  Sustainable Development means ensuring that the needs of the present generation are satisfied without hampering the future…
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Business is any activity that an individual engages into that leads to the satisfaction of human wants. Poverty is a situation when a person is not able to meet up his basic needs of food, shelter, clothing and subsistence employment; he can be said to be a poor person. The dimension of poverty ranges from infinity complex and personality adjustment problems. Sometimes some beg like children, some may not even eat what she or he wants to eat.…
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African countries are that part that has developing in which people with lowest income improves in material welfare.  It has increase overtime of an economy’s capacity to produce those goods and services needed to improve the wellbeing of the citizen in increasing numbers and diversity.  African production development merely is the creation of utility in both micro and macro and economic studies that are estimated nationally at least, the varying levels of production and output both the firm…
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The research work is to determine the feasibility and viability of establishing a new soap manufacturing firm in Shomolu-Bariga area of Lagos State.  From investigation, it has been revealed that customers around Shomolu-Bariga of Lagos State Area are not satisfied with the quality of soap available in the market.  Besides, most of the soap manufacturing firms in Lagos are sited in more popular areas like Ikeja, Lagos Island, etc.  Therefore, the significance of this project or feasibility study…
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Abstract
Introduction: To determine the possibility of utilizing total lymphocyte counts (TLC) instead of
CD4 counts in the initiation and management of patients with HIV on highly active antiretroviral
therapy (HAART). The commencement of HAART CD4 lymphocytes has been employed in the
management HIV. However it has been found that determination of CD4 counts is expensive and
somewhat laborious to perform in already overburdened healthcare systems especially in the developing
countries. Methodology: Five hundred and three (503) consenting patients already…
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Background: Transfusion-transmissible infectious agents such as hepatitis B virus (HBV),
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis are among the
greatest threats to blood safety for transfusion recipients and pose a serious public health problem.
This cross-sectional study was undertaken with the aim of determining the seroprevalence of
HIV, HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and syphilis and correlates the findings with
sex and age to ascertain the associations, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. READ MORE Download Staff Profile


ABSTRACT
Purpose: Feto-maternal haemorrhage (FMH) is a complication of pregnancy and large FMH may lead to life-threaten- ing anaemia in the fetus or newborn. In addition, exposure of Rhesus (Rh) D negative women to small amounts of fetal Rh D positive red cells during pregnancy or delivery may result in sensitization with its attendant problems of isoim-munisation. In most cases, the cause of FMH IS unknown. Through this study, we sought to determine if placental weight & diameter have any…
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ABSTRACT
A cross-sectional study was carried out in Ilie community of Olorunda Local Government Area in Osun state, southwestern
Nigeria to comparatively evaluate the presumptive diagnosis of schistosoma infections using microscopy as gold standard. One
hundred and thirty seven consented primary school children aged 4 to 15 years were examined for presence of schistosome eggs.
The urine samples were analyzed with urinalysis strips for microhaematuria as indicators of presumptive diagnosis for urinary
schistosomiasis while fecal samples were analyzed with fecal…
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Urinary Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health importance in Africa affecting
children. It relationship with malnutrition is well pronounced in Nigeria and impairs growth of
the affected children or persons. This work investigates the nutritional status of children
infected with urinary schistosomiasis. The Anthropometric indices of the studied children
were determined according to standard procedures and related to intensity of Schistosom.
haematobium infection. The weight, height and Age were Anthropometric indices used in this
study. A total of…
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Antioxidant, hypolipidemic and Hypoglycemic Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats.


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Abstract
Background Stroke is a very troubling illness as it not only disables its victim, but also kills most of them outright. Its rate is increasing in the developing countries and this drains their finances. As a result many seek management of their condition in herbal homes. But of recent there is a preference to herbal medicine by most stroke survivors, irrespective of social status. This is a new phenomenon.
Objective The main objective of this study was to assess…
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ABSTRACT
Despite important progress in the management of diabetes using synthetic drugs, many traditional plant treatments
are still being used throughout the world.
The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol leaf extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on the
histology of the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Thirty rats divided into six groups (n=5). Groups I and II
received only normal saline; group III received 2 mg/kg of glibenclamide; groups IV, V and VI received 125, 250, READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Abstract
Objective: The study was aimed at investigating the hypoglycemic, antioxidant and Hepatoprotective
effects of Chrysophyllum albidum in diabetes induced male Wistar rats. Methods: Ethanol root bark
extract was administered to thirty rats of six groups A, B, C, D, E and F of five rats each, weighing
between 150-170g. Diabetes was induced in Groups B, C, D, E and F using a single intraperitoneal
injection of 140mg/kg of Alloxan after an overnight fast. Group A served as the normal…
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Summary: The present study was conducted to investigate the antifertility activity of the ethanol root bark extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on sperm parameter and hormonal levels in rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups of six animals each. The first group (A) received distilled water and served as control. The second and third group (B & C) of animals were administered the ethanol root bark extract daily at 100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg decrease in the caudal epididymal…
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Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lime juice on the fetal parameters of Sprague-Dawley rats
Materials and Methods: Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used. They were randomly divided into 2 groups (I and II) of 10 rats each. The estrous cycles of the rats were studied for the first 16 days to establish cyclicity. The rats were mated with male SD rats of proven fertility on the estrous day (heat period) of…
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ABSTRACT
Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is classified as mutagenic and carcinogenic although used in food and
cosmetics industries, and also found in drinking water as a by-product of disinfection. Industrial
pollution of drinking water and its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier lead to the investigation of its
effect on the cerebral cortex. Twenty adult Wistar rats with average weight of 200 g were divided into
four groups designated as ‘A’ for the control group, and ‘B, C and D’ for…
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Abstract:
Purpose: The ethanolic root bark of Chrysophyllum albidum were evaluated for their effect on antioxidant
enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde)
activities in rats.
Methods: Eighteen male Wister rats weighing 100-200g were divided into three groups of six animals each.
Two treated groups received a daily dose of ethanolic root bark of Chrysophyllum albidum at 100mg/kg and
200mg/kg body weight respectively via gastric gavage, while equal volume of normal saline was administered
to…
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ABSTRACT
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on hormones and sperm analysis of laboratory rats. Fifteen male rats weighing 230-250g were completely randomised into three groups: A-C. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered with 0.5ml of distilled water once daily for 21 days while those in Groups B and C, received 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively), and effect of the treatment on…
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ABSTRACT Objectives: Study was carried out to determine the incidence of male infertility in Medical Art Center, Maryland Ikeja Lagos, Western. Nigeria. Method: The specimens were collected and analyzed in the andrology laboratory. The standard method of masturbation after 3-5 days of prior abstinence from sex before sample collection was applied. The samples were examined for semen volume, morphology, sperm motility and count. Result: The semen samples of 263 (two hundred and sixty three) males attending infertility clinic, aged between…
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Abstract: It was therefore the aim of this study to find out whether long term consumption of cooked and uncooked
beans (cowpea) diet has effects on some neurobehavioral parameters such as anxiety and fear using Swiss white mice as
experimental animals, since cowpea contain serotonin and its precursor 5-Hydroxytryptophan which have
neurobehavioral effects. Forty (40) Swiss mice were randomly assigned into four groups. Control (group A) were fed
normal rodent chow, cooked beans (group B) received cooked beans diet (50%…
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Abstract
The use of Mucunaflagellipes in recent time has been on the increase as a result of its speculated therapeutic effect mostly on the
protein level of the body. And owing to the fact that there are no detailed reports on Mucunaflagellipes on its effect on neurobehavioral
parameters, this work is therefore intended to investigate the possible effects of this herb on the exploratory behavior and body
weight in Swiss white mice. Twenty (20) mice of mixed sex were randomly…
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Background: Telfairia occidentalis seed is a multipurpose
plant with many attributes and considerable therapeutic
potentials. Carbon Tetrachloride is one of the oldest and
most widely used toxins for experimental induction of liver
fibrosis in laboratory animals. The Liver is usually the organ
to receive the effect of this chemical thereby causing
hepatotoxicity, simply because of its method of metabolism,
as well as carrying out the first pass effect by metabolizing
endogenous and exogenous substances hence its
consideration.
Aim: The aim…
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ABSTRACT
Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves have been used against many disorders, such as rheumatism, fever, headache,
diarrhea, and loss of appetite. Cassava leaves reportedly also possess anti-hemorrhoid, anti-inflammatory, and
antimicrobial activity. The aim is to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Manihot esculenta and piroxicam
co-administration for induced gastro-toxicity in male wistar rats and thus determine histo-morphologic changes in
the stomach due to piroxicam-mediated toxicity. The leaves of Manihot esculenta leaves were collected and dried
for two weeks at…
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ABSTRACT
The aim of this present study is to investigate the effect of repeated administration of 5-Hydroxytryptophan diet (5-HTP)
on learning and memory using CD-1 mice as experimental animals. Twenty male (20) mice were randomly assigned into
two groups of ten mice each, namely; Control and 5-Hydroxytryptophan diet (15%w/w) groups. Feeding lasted for 28
days, during which there were daily measurements of food intake, water intake and body weight changes. Thereafter, the
Morris water maze task was used to assess…
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Abstract
Original Article
Introduction
Every individual needs a certain amount of body fat for
energy, heat insulation, and shock absorption. However,
excessive deposition of fat in the body, which is usually
referred to as overweight or obesity, has been found to be
medically deleterious to the body. Overweight specifically
refers to an excess body weight compared to set standards,
while obesity is to have an abnormally high proportion of
total body fat.[1]
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess…
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ABSTRACT
Background: The morphology of an individual‘s external ear and its
dimensions vary amongst persons to the point that the right and left ears
differ.
Aims: This study is aimed at establishing the anatomical variation in the
auricular structure of the students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Methods: The study utilizes a total of 200 students, 101 male and 99 female
subjects within the age range of 16-30 years. Total ear length and breadth of
both ears were measured…
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Abstract
Excess body fat deposition is known to be unhealthy. There have been several
discourses on defined anthropometric indices for the assessment and a better
prediction of obesity in pregnant women. This is because certain cut-off values
relating to obesity in pregnant subjects are highly influenced by age, sex, ethnicity
and trimesters of pregnancy. This study is aimed at investigating the use of two
basic anthropometric indices to measure obesity and evaluate its prevalence in
the different trimesters of pregnancy.…
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ABSTRACT
Since prehistoric times, man has relied on herbal plants as source of medicine in curing various ailments. This
study was carried out to assess the anti- anxiety-like effect of the ethanol extract of Wild fig (Ficus thonningii) in
Swiss white (CD-1) mice. Thirty Swiss mice were randomly divided into three groups (1-3), n=10). Group 1
(control) was administered normal rat fed and saline, while group 2(low dose) and group 3(high dose) were
administered 10mg/kg w/w and 20mg/kg w/w of…
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Abstract
Ficus thonningii plant has been reported to be used for the treatment of various ailments, such as stomach ache, pain diarrhea, etc. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate its effect on exploratory/locomotor activities of the ethanol extract of the leaves of the plant. Exploration/locomotor behavior were assessed using the open field maze and the light/dark transition box tests. Animals were divided into three groups containing 10 mice each. Group A served as the control which was…
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The anxiolytic effect of the leaves of water lily was investigated using mice as experimental
animals. Thirty (30) were mice randomly divided into group 1, 2 and 3. Before the neurobehavioral
parameters were assessed, the LD50 and the phytochemical screening of the leaves of the plant
were determined. The open field maze and the transition box apparatus were used to determine
the level of fear and anxiety related behaviors in mice. In the open field arena, the grooming
frequency was…
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ABSTRACT:
The abuse of chemicals particularly psychoactive substances has been on the increase amongst the youth
populace to the extent of becoming a front burner and top category public health concern in many developing
nations of Africa, hence the aim of this study to evaluate the use of psychoactive substance and its risk factors
among secondary school students in Port Harcourt LGA of Rivers State, so as to establish the prevalence rate of
the use of the substances among the…
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Study Background: Toxoplasma gondii a protozoan and zoonotic infection can stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Aims
and Objectives: This work was designed to determine relationship between parasitic infection of T. gondii, interleukin?2 (IL?2), tumor
necrosis factor?alpha (TNF??), and Tryptophan and CD4+ count. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 individuals aged 21–73 years
(male: 100 and female: 50) were recruited from Saki?West, Saki?East, and ATISBO local governments of Nigeria. Plasma TNF??, IL?2,
Tryptophan, anti?hepatitis C virus (anti?HCV), hepatitis B…
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Background: Viral biomarkers in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) could be a primary or secondary viral infection to PTB which may depressed
immunity or make the patient susceptible to the secondary infection. Aim and Objective: This work was, therefore, designed to determine
frequency of anti?hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B envelope
antibody (HBeAb), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?1 p24 in newly infected Mycobacterium PTB patients. Materials and Methods:
Sixty newly infected Mycobacterium…
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Abstract
Infectious agents and chemical substances can trigger the production and the release of cytokines.
To determine the pattern of infectious agents in herbal homes patients with elevated TNF? (? 5.0
pg/ml) in Saki – West-Nigeria. The subjects include patients with elevated TNF? (? 5.0 pg/ml) in 15
herbal homes(n=23 ; aged 5-69 years; males – 13 ; females – 10) and patients with elevated TNF? in
3 major hospitals (n = 32; aged 6 -67years; males – 12 ;…
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An intellectual is a well educated person that could reason logically and understand the phenomena around him or her.  The understanding through the Intellectual’s Education and Training enables him or her to be able to simulate and implement new strategies.  A strategy is about generalship to have courses of action with such elements as product-market scope, goals and objectives, deployment of emphasis.  Competitive advantage and distinctive competence, growth vector and synergy to achieve comprehensive organizational and national objective. …
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Abstract Background: Drepanocytosis (sickle cell anaemia) is a genetic disorder that causes stiff, rod-like sickle-shaped haemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs) and consequently poses serious health complications. We investigated in vitro anti-sickling potential of a novel polyherbal formula (MPF). Methods: Sickling of RBCs induced with 2%sodium metabisulphite (MBS) was followed by treatment with MPF mixtures in different saline concentrations (7mg/ml, 9mg/ml, 14mg/ml and 28mg/ml). The red cell morphology was examined microscopically. Percentage sickling was quantified 30-minute interval at 370C for…
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ABSTRACT
Infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a public health problem. Worldwide, there are about 170 million people infected with
HCV. HCV is transmitted through sex and use of contaminated sharp objects during tattooing or intravenous drug abuse. These
routes make youth to be more vulnerable. Transfusion and mother to child transmissions are also documented modes. This
study was carried out to determine sero-prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among in school youth at Achievers University,
Owo in southwest…
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ABSTRACT
Background: The influences of tribes on coagulation profile have not been sufficiently investigated. However, Genetic factors contribute to the inter individual variation of blood coagulation protein levels (de Lange et al., 2001). This study was aimed to assess some coagulation profile on 420 subjects, age range 18-84years old, consisting of 60 subjects each from the different tribes (Igbo, Yoruba, Hausa, Ibibio, Ijaw, Urhobo and Efik) males and females all residing in Nnewi town, Anambra state Nigeria. Prothrombin Time (PT),…
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Social lifestyle plays a significant role in the transmission of human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV). Hence, abstinence and faithfulness are important for preventing
HIV transmission.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV antibodies among Muslims
in Osun state, Nigeria.
A total of 1554 Muslims who attended mosques for worship and provided consent
were recruited for this study. Relevant data were obtained using a pro forma
designed for this purpose. Blood specimens were collected for HIV screening
using Determine, Unigold,…
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Abstract
Background: The lives of patients living with HIV/AIDs have improved in terms of
longer life expectancy and quality. This has seen the emergence of complications of
the disease and the drugs such as metabolic syndrome and re-emergence of tuberculosis.
Co-infection with other viruses especially the hepatic viruses has also become a
major source of concern. The aim of this research is to determine the incidence of
hepatitis B and E among this group of patients. Methods and Findings: Blood…
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a b s t r a c t
Aim: This studyisthefirstattemptconductedtodeterminetheco-infectionratesofHepatitisCvirus
among peoplelivingwithHIV/AIDS(PLWHA)inourhospital.Thisisexpectedtoleadtoimprovementin
treatment protocols.
Background: Co-infection ofHepatitisCvirusinfectionandHIV(HumanImmuneDeficiencyVirus)infec-
tion isnottobeunexpectedastheyshareroutesofinfection.Thedetectionofsuchpatientsisparticularly
important asthetreatmentmayinvolvelifethreateningdruginteractions.Thiscouldresultinshorter
life expectancyofthepatients.
Materials andMethods: This isaprospectivestudy.Atotalof280subjectslivingwithHIV/AIDSwere
recruited intothisstudy.Seraoftheparticipantsweresubjectedtoanti-HCVantibody(IgG)screening
using thirdgenerationELISAkitfromDIA.PRO,Italy.TheprevalenceofHCVwasdeterminedandbar
charts andtableswereutilisedtodepicttheprevalenceratesofvariousgroups.
Results: Sixty five(23.2%)oftheparticipantswerefoundtobeco-infected.Noassociationwasestablished
between age,sex,partnersstatus,previoustransfusion,andnumberofpartners.
Conclusion: The prevalenceof23.2%forHCVamongPLWHAreportedforthiscommunityisalarming.
More focusshouldbedirectedonmanagementofHCVcomponentofcoinfectionthanitisdonenow.
Further studiesarerecommendedemployingmoleculartechniquestodeterminesubtypesofHCVthat
may bepredominantandwhythisfigureofco-infectionissohighinthestudylocation.


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Summary
This prospective study of parturients at a tertiary health institution in south-western Nigeria aims to identify the incidence,
severity and obstetric factors predisposing to feto – maternal haemorrhage (FMH) in our population. The exclusion criteria
were haemoglobinopathy and patient’s refusal of consent to participate in the study. The prepared slide was processed as in
the acid elution test described by Kleihauer – Betke. The FMH was calculated using Mollison formula (Mollison 1972).
Baseline data included maternal biodata, blood group,…
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Objective: HIV and HCV share routes of infection. Co-infection and its complications are therefore emerging as a major concern as patients on HAART have longer life expectancy. These complications have been well documented. It is necessary to determine in our environment what epidemiological factors are associated. This is expected to improve treatment protocols leading to increase quality of life and prolonged lifespan. Liver enzymes may be useful to monitor therapy. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study. Seventy age…
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Hospital and community acquired infections, continue to be a threat to public health, causing
morbidities and mortalities. This survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of
Enterobacteriaceae in nosocomial and community acquired infections among adults in LAUTECH
Teaching Hospital in Osogbo southwestern Nigeria. Two hundred and forty isolates from General Out
Patient Department (GOPD) and two hundred and forty isolates from different wards (Surgical, Medical,
Gyneacological, Pediatric, Burn Unit and Ear, Nose and Throat wards) of the hospital were…
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Abstract. Dengue fever is becoming one of the major public health problems in the world and
its distribution has been premised on the migration of people from infected regions. This
study was carried out to determine the prevalence of dengue virus IgG antibody among the
patients with febrile conditions attending health facilities in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern
Nigeria. The blood samples collected between July and September, 2014 were tested for
Plasmodium falciparum and the sera were subsequently subjected to Enzyme Linked READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Abstract
Dengue virus is one of the causative agents of viral haemorrhagic fever, which is transmitted primarily
through Aedes mosquitoes. Transmission of the virus through non-vector sources had been proven, although,
it is the most common arthropod-borne viral infection in human. This study was carried out to determine the
prevalence of Dengue Virus amongst voluntary blood donors in Osogbo, southwest Nigeria. Ninety one
voluntary non-remunerated donors that satisfied donor suitability criteria in Nigeria; having been considered
fit based on physical…
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Osogbo metropolis, with the aim of determining the degree of iron deficiency anaemia in the study population. One hundred confirmed anaemic and recently un-transfused patients with haemoglobin concentration level less than 8 g/dL were selected from two major hospitals in Osogbo. Participants were within aged 6 months – 65 years of both sexes. The parameters estimated were haematological indices using automation (Humancount machine). Serum iron and ferritin were also estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, blood film was made for every…
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Aims: A commercial rapid test kit for anti-Hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV) detection was
evaluated and compared for diagnosis of hepatitis C by detection of immunoglobulin
G(IgG) antibodies against a third generation Enzyme Immunoassay(EIA) as gold
standard.
Methodology: A total of 560 patient serum samples were subjected to rapid screening
with rapid test (immunochromatographic) strip supplied by Global Diagnostics and
commercially prepared IgG capture EIA by DIA.PRO, Italy.
Results: Of the 560 samples, anti HCV was detected in 31(5.54%) by ELISA,…
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The study was conducted to investigate the safety of combined extracts of Bryophyllum
pinnatum (family: Crassulaceae) and Aloe barbadensis (family: Xanthorrhoeaceae) in
rats. Forty rats were randomly selected and divided into four groups. Rats in groups I
were administered with placebo as the control animals, while rats in groups II, III and IV
were administered with aqueous extracts at 25mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 100mg/ml
respectively for 28 days. Five milliliter (5ml) of blood was collected from either the ocular
vein or…
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ABSTRACT
PURPOSE: PMTCT interventions, especially initiation of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has modified the
natural history of HIV infection by reducing both peripartal and neonatal HIV infections, but the pattern of the immunologic
responses of these pregnant women to HAART remains speculative. It is hoped from this study, to describe the pattern of
immunologic response of naïve, HIV positive pregnant women on their first initiation on HAART.
METHODS: This study described the pattern of CD4 changes observed in freshly…
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Abstract
Background: Previous reports showed lack of consensus on the possible etiology of coronary artery disease (CAD) between
HIV-treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HIV-infection in particular. The aim of this
study was to find out correlations of HIV-treatment and HIV-infection with CAD risk.
Method: One hundred and twenty (120) participants involving HIV-patients on treatment (n = 40), treatment-naïve (n =
40) and equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. The total cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Abstract: Atherogenic cardiovascular risk assessment is important in the
management of dyslipidaemia associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Generally, Castelli?s Risk Index (CRI), Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and
Atherogenic coefficient (AC) are becoming useful indices as risk predictors for
cardiovascular disease (CVD). We studied the importance of these indices in
identifying at-risk HIV individuals receiving treatment. Eighty (80) HIV-patients
comprising treatment (n=40) and treatment-naïve (n=40) groups with age- and sexmatched
were enrolled. Traditional lipid parameters {Total cholesterol (TC),
Triglycerol (TG),…
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Background: In the north central Nigeria, observed haemoglobin concentration is often
used to determine the packed cell volume of patients, especially by many laboratories
that cannot afford the cost of micro-haematocrit centrifuge.
Aim: The study was carried out to determine the accuracy of 3-fold haemoglobin
conversion to haematocrit level in anaemic conditions.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 580 symptomatic (febrile)
patients and 810 subclinically anaemic subjects attending some selected private medical
laboratories, hospitals and clinics in Kuje…
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ABSTRACT
Compliance of 21 private medical laboratories in Osun State with ethical and other professional was
assessed by the authors' pre and post inspection by the Medical Laboratory Science Council of Nigeria
(MLSCN). Laboratory environment, personnel, equipment and adherence to Standard Operating Procedures
(SOPs) were used as indicators and the results obtained were compared. Thirteen (62 %) was found to have
conformed to environmental specifications before the MLSCN's inspection. This rose to 84% and 89% a month
and 6 months…
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Aim: One third of HIV patients are co- infected with HCV. As HIV patients live longer this coinfection
and its complications such as liver cirrhosis, hepatic carcinoma, metabolic syndrome are
emerging as major manifestations of the disease that need to be dealt with promptly in order to
avoid a reduction of the positive effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on
HIV/AIDS introduced in 1996. Another system that could be affected by co-infection is the skeletal
system. It has been…
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Introduction
Medical laboratory science has been defined by the
Medical Laboratory Science Council of Nigeria
(MLSCN) Act 11 of 2003 as the practice involving
the analysis of human or animal tissues, body fluids,
excretions, production of biologicals, design and
fabrication of equipment for the purpose of medical
laboratory diagnosis, treatment and research1.
Quality practices in medical laboratory service are of
paramount importance in health care delivery


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The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of ABO Blood groups and haemolysins
(? and ß) in Osogbo metropolis. Seventeen thousands, nine hundred and thirty one subjects
(Age?18) who consented to donating blood for transfusion and/or blood group determination
were included in this study. About 5mls of blood were collected into plain bottles from each
subject. Cells and sera grouping were subsequently carried out after clot retraction. Blood
group O individuals have the highest frequency (53.6%) followed…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is an agent of Transfusion Transmissible Infection (TTI) which
serves as a threat to blood safety and sufficiency of blood and blood products supply.
Objectives: This study aimed at determining the distribution patterns of HCV among potential blood donors
in a private Blood Bank in Osogbo, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Over a period of 6 months, 290 consenting prospective blood donors were
recruited for this study by convenient sampling technique. Pre-test counseling was done,…
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Abstract
Background: HTLV type I/II is a blood borne infection that can be transmitted via blood
transfusion.
Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of human T – lymphotropic virus among blood donors
in Osogbo, Nigeria.
Methods: Diagnosis of Human T. Lymphotropic virus antigen was carried out on 372 serum
samples among blood donors who visited the blood bank/transfusion unit of Ladoke Akintola
University of Technology Teaching Hospital and Our Lady of Fatima Catholic Hospital, Osogbo
between January and July 2008 using…
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My role as a blood transfusion coordinator in a
rural new teaching hospital and distribution of
ABO and RHO blood groups among patients
attending Delta State University Teaching
Hospital, Oghara during the period of July 2010
to March 2011


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BACKGROUND
Drug-induced thrombocytopenia (DITP), which also includes
thrombocytopenia induced by beverages, foods, and herbal remedies, is
an important clinical problem for haematologists. Drug-induced
thrombocytopenia is often misdiagnosed as immune thrombocytopenic
purpura with resulting inappropriate treatment. Immune thrombocytopenic
purpura (ITP) is a clinical disorder that leads to easy bruising (purpura),
excessive bleeding or extravasation of blood from capillaries into skin and
mucous membranes (petechiae). The bleeding tendency is due to decreased
number of circulating platelets (thrombocytopenia). There is production of
antibodies…
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ABSTRACT
Background: There is continuous rise in haematology and haemato-oncology cases in Nigeria.
Unfortunately, there is inadequate number of haematologists to care for these rising cases despite
the high number of medical doctors being churned out by over twenty medical schools in Nigeria.
Object: The aim of this study is to find out the preference rate of Haematology among medical
students in a typical Nigerian medical school.
Methodology: Questionnaires were used to collect data from medical students who met the READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Abstract
Objective(s): The present study was designed to provide additional information on some hematological and
biochemical changes associated with blood transfusion in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients.
Materials and methods: A total of 86 subjects (aged between 20 and 40 years) were randomly studied. Among
these were 30 multi-transfused SCA (? 3 units of blood per year), 30 rarely transfused SCA (year) and 26 apparently healthy individuals. The blood samples collected in EDTA were used for packed cell
volume, haemoglobin…
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ABSTRACT
Background: The demand to study medicine in Nigeria is very high thereby putting lots of pressure
to the University authorities because of inadequate space and provision to accommodate the large
number of applicants.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the factors motivating students and influencing
their desire to study medicine and proffer solutions to reduce the population of applicants to
medical schools.
Methodology: Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information from 311 medical
students of Delta…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Blood transfusion is a very essential part of medical practice. However, blood and
blood component transfusions are associated with some adverse transfusion reactions. Some of
these reactions can lead to loss of patients’ lives and hence defeating the essence of blood usage
in saving lives.
Objectives: This study aims to establish those factors promoting and increasing the susceptibility
of patients for adverse transfusion reactions.
Methodology: Two-year records (July 2014-June 2016) of our patients reported to have blood
transfusion…
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Abstract
Background: Blood and blood components transfusion is a very important component of medical practice and
patients’care. However, this wonderful therapeutic tool is associated with some disadvantages namely adverse
transfusion reactions which in some cases lead to fatal consequences defeating the essence of its usage.
Objectives: This study aims to establish the modes of presentations (signs and symptoms) of blood transfusion
reactions among recipients of blood in Delsuth, Oghara.
Methodology: Records of our patients who were reported to have blood…
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Abstract
Introduction: Haematological malignancies (HM) are malignant disorders involving the haemopoietic system. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the development and evolution of these disorders. To measure total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with HM and to determine if any, the relationship between TAC and total lipid in these patients.
Presentation of the case: This is a multicentre cross sectional study. Patients were sampled with self administered questionnaire that documented their biodata and the various types of haematological malignancies they…
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Abstract
Background: Sickle cell disease is a chronic debilitating condition. Nigeria has the largest pool of the sickle
cell gene in the world. Three to five million people are affected in Nigeria. Knowledge of the disease may help
in reducing the national prevalence.
Objective: To determine the level of awareness of sickle cell disease in a typical rural community of Delta State.
Method: Structured researcher-administered questionnaires were used to collect information from residents of
Akoku-Uno community of Delta state.
Resuts:…
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Abstract
Background: South-South geopolitical region of Nigeria is a region rich with oil exploration activities. The people in this region
are exposed to petroleum products which is one of the factors associated with leukaemia. There are limited data on leukaemia
among these people. This study sought to document the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with leukaemia from
this region. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-three (163) case notes of patients from this region with the diagnosis
of leukaemia…
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Summary
Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) complications namely stroke, osteomyelitis, retinopathy,
pulmonary embolism, renal failure, chronic leg ulcers, cholelithiasis, acute chest syndrome,
avascular necrosis (AVN) of the head of femur, and others, affect virtually all systems of the
body. The prevalence and pattern of the complications of this disorder in south-south Nigeria
had not been documented. The objective of the study was to detect and analyze frequency of
occurrence of the different types of complications seen in adult SCA patients in…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Unlike Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) whose genetic basis (the Philadelphia
chromosome), has become a household name, that of Polycythaemia Vera and other non-leukemic
myeloproliferative diseases has not equally received wide publicity.
Aim: The aim of this paper is to review and highlight the role of JAK2 mutation in Polycythaemia Vera,
Primary Myelofibrosis and Essential Thrombocythaemia.
Methods: Literature on the subject was reviewed using manual library search, articles in journals, internet
search and conference abstracts.
Results: JAK2 mutation plays…
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IntrOduction
Historically, the first case of sickle cell disease
(SCD) was reported in 1910 by a Dental Surgeon
who made blood films of one of his patients and
demonstrated red blood cells having a "slender
sickle shape' ,.1 The history of sickle cell anaemia is
a very good reminder of the importance of
supportive role of the laboratory to clinical diagnosis
and research'". The observation that sickle cell trait
may have a survival advantage against malaria was
based on the…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Disseminated intravascular coagulation is an acquired acute, subacute or chronic
coagulation or thrombohaemorrhagic disorder characterized by formation of microthrombi, consumption
of coagulation factors/platelets, activation of fibrinolytic system and haemorrhage. It occurs as a
secondary complication to a variety of disorders and infectious diseases but its occurrence in tuberculosis
is rare and has not been reported.
Objective: The aims of this paper are to present a case of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
complicated by Acute Renal Failure in a patient…
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Summary
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder.
characterized by the presence of Philadelphia chromosome and affects a good number of
Africans and African-American population. The aim of this review is to highlight the
aetiophysiology, clinical/laboratory characteristics and treatment options, especially the new
and emerging treatment modalities of CML. The review was sourced mainly from internet
(pubmed). Relevant Oncology journals and textbooks of haematology were also consulted.
There are reported cases of relapse/resistance to imatinib which is the current…
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Abstract
Background: Churg Strauss syndrome is a medical
COIId-tionof unknoVin aetiology characterized by as/hma,
eosinophilia and finally vasculitis involving small vessels
in thelimbs and nasal sinuses aoo the lungs. The purpose
of this Tevie is to highlight the natural history of this
condifon, the pathogenesis, clinical features and
lteatmenl modalities available and the prognosis.
Methods: Literature on the subJect Vias reviewed using
manuallibrary search. articles injoumals, internet search
andconference abstracts. .
Result Churg Strauss syndrome has been reported to
be…
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ABSTRACT
Background/Objective: In a rapidly developing world where conflicts are inevitable and accidents
and other forms of trauma are constantly encountered there is an increased need for blood transfusion
to keep victims ofthese events alive. As the need for blood increases, there is a corresponding decrease
in the amount of blood available for transfusion due to increased demand and a falling donor pool. In
addition, there are people who due to religious reasons abhor blood transfusion. The emergence ofthe
HIV…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic has become a major global
public health problem, the brunt of which is largely borne by communities in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Objectives: The aim ofthis review is to highlight and bring to the fore the peripheral blood and bone
marrow changes ofHIV and AIDS because many Hlv-infected persons may present with these changes
as more patients with this disease survive longer because oftherapy.
Methods: The review was sourced mainly by pubmed search using the…
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AdescriPtive retrospctive study of the
pattern of children admitted between
ugust 2002 and January 2005
inclusive to the department of Paediatrics of
Central Hospital Ughelli, an urban community
in the oil rich Niger-Delta region of Nigeria was
done. Children between 2 months and 3 years
constituted 64.1% of the total admissions and
79% of those with severe anaemia that required
transfusion. The neonatal admissions was just
0.3% of the total admissions but the neonatal
transfusion was O.7% of the total…
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ABSTRACT
Background: The higher prevalence of blood group 0 places more demand on it when compared
to other blood groups in developing countries. Group 0 blood is usually abused in hospitals with
the erroneous belief that individuals with blood group 0 are universal donors. Haemolysins are
IgG antibodies seen particularly in blood group 0 subjects and their demonstration in vitro helps
detect dangerous blood group 0 donors whenever such blood is to be given to non-O individuals.
Objective: The aims…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Idiopathic Myelofibrosis is a non-leukemic myeloproliferative disorder
characterized by generalized fibrosis of the bone marrow in association with
extramedullary haematopoiesis mainly in the spleen and liver. Prominent among its
laboratory features are the presence of tear drop red blood cells (dacryocytes) and
immature red blood and white cells (leukoerythroblasts) in the peripheral blood film.
Aim: The objectives of this paper are to present a case of Idiopathic Myelofibrosis without
the usual peripheral blood film picture and also to…
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Abstract
Background: Petroleum exploration has been associated with diverse health problems in many parts of
the world. There are reports of increased incidences ofhaematological malignancies in the areas where
petroleum exploration is taking place. Petroleum exploration and exploitation has been ongoing in many
countries and people living in these areas have borne the brunt ofthe environmental and health devastation
taking place and efforts are not made to educate these people ofthe hazards they are encountering
Objective: The aim of this…
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SUMMARY
Objective: To determine the incidence and soclodemographic factors associated with
various adult leukaemia subtypes in a tertiary hospital in, Nigeria.
Patients and Methods: A total of 190 patients with a diagnosis of leukaemia seen OVf:T a
12-year period (1990.2002) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria were
studied. They were analyzed in the context of gender, marital status, geographical abode.
educational and occupational status,
Results: There were 70 males and 120 females with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.7. READ MORE Download Staff Profile


SUMMARY
The case of a 54-year eld woman who never
knew she had sickle cell anaemia until she
presented with a two week history of
weakness, fever.loss of appetite. nausea, easy
fatiquability and upper abdominal pains is
presented. She was a known hypertensive and
peptic ulcer disease prior to presentation. Her
Peripheral blood film and haemglobin
electrophoresis confirmed diagnosis of sickle
cell anaemia. It is highlighted that while
diagnosis commonly occurs in childhood,
symptomatology of the disease can occur in READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Background: The blood of a pregnant
woman is quite unique with a lot of interesting
challenges. In non-pregnant women, certain
alterations in haematopoeitic systems call for
therapeutic interventions. In the state of
pregnancy, however, some of such changes
are regarded harmless because of reversal to
non-pregnant values after delivery. On the
other hand, management of some bloodrelated
pathologies in pregnancy puts the
healthcare provider at his/her wits end
because of the consideration of possible
effect(s) of any treatment modality on…
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Background: Blood saves lives only when
the blood itself is safe. The safety of blood
depends on the quality of its donor and these
donors can be categorized into commercial,
replacement and voluntary blood donors.
Aim and Objective: The aim of this study
was to determine the socio-demographic
factors and categories of blood donors in
Warri, Southern Nigeria.
Materials and Methods:A Semi-structured
self-administered questionnaire was used to
collect all necessary information from blood
donors.
Results: A total of 500 blood…
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Background: The study was conceived to
assess the seroprevalence of human
immunodeficiency virus among blood donors
living in Warri South South region of Nigeria.
The importance ofthis study is to highlight the
prevalence of HIV in different age groups of
blood donors.
Methods: This was a descriptive analysis of
the records ofa total of3518 blood donors for
the year 2002 to ascertain the age distribution
and the sero-positivity for the human
immunodeficiency virus. Descriptive
statistics was used to present the…
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Abstract
Background: The increased need of safe
blood and blood products and their
unavailability in hospitals remain a formidable
challenge faced by healthcare providers in
developing countries such as Nigeria.
Airn:To determine the level of awareness of
blood donation among tertiary institution
undergraduates in an urban setting of
Southern Nigeria.
Methodology: Semi-structured questionnaire
was used to collect information from
undergraduates of the University of Benin
and Delta State University both in southern
Nigeria. Data analysis was done using SPSS
software…
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Abstract
Background: Carbon monoxide is a tastelessvodourless, colourless, non-irritating, and
poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of organic materials. It is particularly
dangerous as it cannot be detected by man's natural sense organs. There is hardly a
month without one or two newspaper reports of death attributed to carbon monoxide
poisoning.
Objective: To determine the students' knowledge about carbon monoxide poisoning, and
their ability to identify victims suspected of suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning.
Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was…
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Abstract
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus/HfV) and Hepatitis B Virus(HBV)
infections are global viral diseases with various seroprevalence rates in different parts of
the world. They share similar modes of transmission and are very important in
Transfusion Medicine.
Aim/Objective: To determine the level of awareness and practice of HIV and Hepatitis B
virus screening among Niger-Delta residents.
Methodology: Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from
residents in Benin and Warri towns of southern Nigeria.
Results: A total of 396 people…
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Summary
Solitary plasmacytomas are defined as proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells without
evidence of significant bone-marrow plasma-cell infiltration. They are classified
according to location into solitary plasmacytoma of bone if they occur in bone, and
extramedullary plasmacytoma if they arise in soft tissues. They are more frequent in
males than females and have a peak incidence in the fifth and sixth decade of life.
Solitary plasmacytoma accounts for about 5% of plasma cell tumours. More than 80% of
extramedullary plasmacytoma…
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Abstract
Background: Pre-marital screening programme is aimed at reducing the incidence of
hereditary and sexually transmitted diseases in the society. The study was carried out to
determine the types of tests done by churches in Oredo LOA, Benin City.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among all the 140 churches
in Ihogbe and Ogbe quarters in Oredo LOA of Benin-City, Nigeria.
Result: Out of a total of 140 churches studied through their church leaders, all of them
requested…
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ABSTRACT
Leucocytosis, marked increase in the number of white blood cells (WBC) is a known physiological
response to trauma. In recent times, several studies have asserted the absence of this response in
Africans. In view of this, current study investigated the existence of, and prognostic implications of
post-traumatic leucocytosis amongst adult Nigerians with acute musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma. Two
hundred and twenty three (223) adult male and females (MSK traumatized) and fifty apparently
healthy volunteers (adults) were ethically recruited from the…
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Background: Moringa oleifera, otherwise referred to as a miracle tree, has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases. Moringa has
been the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there has been scant information on its sub?acute effect on the kidneys. This work
was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the liver and lungs of adult Wistar rats. Twenty?eight adult
healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into four groups…
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Background: Moringa oleifera, otherwise referred to as a miracle tree, has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases. Moringa has
been the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there has been scant information on its sub?acute effect on the kidneys. This work
was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the liver and lungs of adult Wistar rats. Twenty?eight adult
healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into four groups…
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Background: Moringa oleifera, otherwise referred to as a miracle tree, has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases. Moringa has
been the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there has been scant information on its sub?acute effect on the kidneys. This work
was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the liver and lungs of adult Wistar rats. Twenty?eight adult
healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into four groups…
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Democracy has been conceptualized in different forms.  It has the core characteristic which is generally accepted amongst others as, the devolution and liberalization of the electoral system.  The issue of accommodating women in a democratic system has been on the front burner.  Globalization theory argues that economic decentralization is expected to encourage and stimulate the devolution of political power and a decentralized form of politics in which the state will yield political space to civil society.  In spite…
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Arguments supporting privatization of land as articulated by its advocate’s suggest that it is a developmental paradigm necessary for rural development.  Privatization of land as a developmental strategy has intensified the integration of countries into the global system encouraging capital and investment flow into agricultural sector.  Hence, the current wave of privatization of land in rural communities of Kwara State has introduced new dimension on land as a commodity resulting to massive land grab.  Given the constraint which…
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The study examined contemporary challenges to state sovereignty and the idea of a waning sovereignty.  The study analyzed the debate on the downsizing of the principle of sovereignty as a result of the challenges posed by globalization.  Many have argued that there are political, economic, and social forces that are working to breakdown the importance and authority of states and, are creating pressures to move the world towards a much higher degree of integration.  Proponents of this vies…
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Politics provides the opportunity for participation in the administration and management of a country.  The essence is that, if elected, one is then opportuned to be a part of the core political process.  This study attempts to highlight the extent of women participation in politics and their contributions to women empowerment and by extension national development in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic.  The study while acknowledging an improvement in terms of the number of women in elective and non-elective positions…
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Globalisation is reflected in the policies of liberalization, privatization and deregulation.  These policies which are imbedded in the neo-liberal economic tradition are seen as welfarist ideology that would lead to development; hence increase the living conditions of the peoples.  It is further argued that the implementation of glabalisation policies in developing countries while integrating all countries into the global economy is a veritable solution to the economic growth.  An overlooked aspect of the above claim is that globalization…
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The study examined the extent to which globalization has eroded the sovereignty and independence of the Nigerian state via-a-via the formulation and implementation of policies that affect its citizen.  Using secondary source of data for its analysis, the study reveals that globalization policies introduced a number of material developments that undercut Nigeria’s state sovereignty.  Hence the impact of globalization is the fact that the Nigeria state is unable to control these material developments because globalization policies and decisions…
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ABSTRACT
Parasitosis is a major health problem in Nigeria with 50% prevalence among urban dwellers and 68% prevalence
among rural population. Serum IgE differs with allergy and chronicity of infection but information on IgE levels in
humans with different classes of parasites is scarce. Stool and blood specimens collected from apparently healthy,
asymptomatic, school children were examined for ova, cysts and larvae of intestinal parasites and for trophozoites
of Plasmodium species respectively. Serum IgE level was measured by ELISA method…
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Background: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) continues to be associated with schizophrenia,
but there is the dearth of information on the relationship between the severity of
schizophrenia and plasma levels of vitamin D. This study, therefore, determined the
plasma levels of vitamin D in different severity groups of schizophrenia.
Materials and methods: Plasma level of vitamin D was determined in 60 patients with
schizophrenia and 30 apparently healthy individuals who served as controls. Patients
with schizophrenia were classified into mildly ill,…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Due to the clinical benefits of metformin, its associated side
effects such as vitamin B12 deficiency are usually overlooked and rarely
investigated.
Objective: This study was carried out to determine the serum level of vitamin
B12 in Nigerian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on metformin.
Methods: Serum vitamin B12 level was determined using high performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 81 T2DM patients who have been on
metformin for 5 years or more. Vitamin B12 deficiency was…
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Abstract
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are known to cause abnormal thyroid
function. There is little information on whether HIV infection aggravates alteration of thyroid function in patients with MDRTB.
Objectives: This study was carried out to determine if HIV co-infection alters serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients with MDR-TB patients and to find out the frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction
before the commencement of MDR-TB therapy.
Methods: This…
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Abstract
Objective: This study assessed the diagnostic performance and prognostic properties of C-reactive protein (CRP), copeptin
and cortisol in individuals with sickle cell anaemia (SCA).
Design: Prospective case-control study
Methods: Sixty consecutive SCA subjects (18–40 years) comprising 30 subjects in the steady state and 30 subjects in vasoocclusive
crisis (VOC) were recruited into this study. Thirty (30) apparently healthy individuals with HbAA genotype served
as controls. ELISA was used for the determination of serum levels of copeptin, CRP and cortisol.…
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ABSTRACT
Aim: To provide information on the usefulness of salivary
immunoglobulin classes in the diagnosis of periodontitis.
Materials and methods: About 5 ml of unstimulated saliva was
collected from 25 newly diagnosed subjects with periodontitis and
21 sex/age-matched apparently healthy individuals into plain
sample bottles. The samples were collected between 9 am and
11 am at least, 1 hour after eating or washing of mouth and levels
of salivary immunoglobulin classes (IgA, IgG, IgE and IgM) were
determined using enzyme-linked…
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Summary: It is well known that individuals with SCA undergo constant physiological stress even, in steady state. However, there is little information on the relationship between the severity of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and serum levels of biomarkers of stress. This study therefore determined the serum levels of copeptin, cortisol and CRP in adults with SCA in different severity groups. Sixty adults with sickle cell anaemia in steady state (27.1±6.3 years) and in vaso-occlusive crisis (24.9±4.9 years) were recruited into…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Abnormal lipid homeostasis has been reported in sickle cell anaemia (SCA)
as well as in other haematological disorders. However, there is little information on the lipid
profile of SCA subjects in vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). This study determined the lipid profile
of adult SCA subjects in VOC and in steady state (SSCA). Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight
(58) adults with HbSS (30 in steady state and 28 in vaso-occlusive crisis) and 24 age-matched
healthy individuals with HbAA genotype were recruited…
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Abstract: Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MS) increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes (DM2) and cardiovascular
diseases (CVD) and it is thought to be prevalent in Nigeria. This study aims at determining the prevalence of MS and its component risk
factors among apparently healthy traders in a local market in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: 534 apparently healthy traders from a local
market in Bodija, Ibadan, Nigeria aged (18–105) years with neither DM2 nor CVD were participants of a cohort study on risk READ MORE Download Staff Profile


ABSTRACT
The incorporation of nutritional screening and comprehensive assessments of oxidative stress is increasingly recognised as imperative in the development of standards for quality care in oncology. This study evaluated the levels of nitric oxide (NO), some essential trace metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, and Se), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) in twenty five (25) patients with acute leukaemia and 25 apparently healthy controls. The mean levels of plasma Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe) and Selenium (Se) were not significantly…
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Aim: To provide information on the susceptibility of cigarette smokers to oral diseases. This was
achieved by assessing the degree of salivary oxidative stress markers in smokers with or without
periodontitis. We measured salivary concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen
peroxide (H2O2), myeloperoxidase (MPx) activity, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase
(SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx
activities) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration.
Materials and Methods: About 5 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected into plain bottles from…
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Background: The effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on the immune system is well documented however; its
impact on the nutritional and immunological qualities of the breast milk is scarce. Aim: Levels of some essential trace metals,
albumin and antioxidant status in the plasma and breast milk of Nigerian HIV?infected lactating mothers were determined.
Materials and Methods: Essential trace metals and total antioxidant potential were measured using spectrophotometric method
while albumin was measured using single radial immunodiffusion technique. Results: Only…
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Abstract: Background: Insulin resistance and metabolic alteration continue to
be essential features of major mental health disorders (MMHD) with poorly
understood and multifaceted mechanisms. This study was carried out to provide
information on insulin resistance, beta-cell function, metabolic clearance rate of
glucose and their possible interplay with duration of antipsychotic use in patients
with major mental health disorders.


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Abstract
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited chronic hematological disorder, with inflammatory responses arising from
different pathways. Information is scarce about the levels of acute?phase reactants and essentials trace elements in HbSS Nigerian
children. Understanding of these will further elucidate the pathophysiology of SCD, which may assist in the proper management
of this condition in the pediatric population.
Aim: To measure the levels of acute?phase reactants (C?reactive protein [CRP], C1q, C4, ferritin and transferrin), trace elements
(Fe, Zn,…
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Abstract
Background: Reports have clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of organophosphate pesticides (Op)
toxicity. However, there is dearth of information on which group of the farm workers is more at risk of Op?induced oxidative
stress. Aim: This study determined serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx),
reduced glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and serum activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
in farm workers exposed to Op. Subjects and Methods: A total of…
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Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a 12-month dietary modification on indices of inflammation and pro-thrombosis
in adults with metabolic syndrome (MS).
Materials and methods: This longitudinal study involved 252 adults with MS recruited from the Bodija market, Ibadan and its
environs. Participants were placed on 20%, 30% and 50% calories obtained from protein, total fat and carbohydrate respectively
and were followed up monthly for 12 months. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured using standard methods. Fasting
plasma glucose…
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Background: Suscep???? bility of sickle cell disease subjects to various infec???? ous agents is on the increase, but informa???? on rela???? ng SCD to allergic condi???? on
is scarce. Hence, assessment of immunoglobulin status in SCD children may provide useful informa???? on to improve management of SCD children.
Objec???? ves: To determine the levels of immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE) in Nigerian HbSS children below 5 years of age compared
with sex- and age-matched HbAA children.
Materials and…
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ABSTRACT
Acute leukaemia are usually rapidly progressive with death often occurring in a few weeks to a few months in untreated patients as a result of abnormal hematopoietic function as well as impaired immune response. The risk of relapse which remains in 20% of patients in remission calls for more research on acute leukaemia. This study therefore, evaluated the plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and immunoglobulin classes (IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE) in twenty-five (25) patients…
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Metabolic syndrome (MS) amplifies hypertension (HTN) associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). MS
components and other CVD risk measures were investigated in different stages of hypertension. 534 apparently healthy Nigerian
traders aged 18–105 years were participants of a cohort study.The International Diabetes Federation (2005) and the National High
Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee criteria were used for MS and HTN classifications, respectively.
Anthropometric indices were obtained by standard methods. Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol…
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This study evaluated the effect of vitamins
with antioxidant activity on the effect of
Dichlorvos (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate),
an organophosphorus compound used
in pest control on mammalian organs.
Literature is scanty on the histopathological
effects of inhalationally administered dichlorvos,
especially of the formulations used in
Nigeria. The objective of the study is to evaluate
these effects on vital organs, with a view
to proffering solutions to ameliorate the
effects.
Fifty Wistar male rats were divided into 10
groups of…
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Abstract
B A C K G R O U N D The prevalence of helminth infection, which is known to affect nutritional status of
the host, varies with age. The complex interplay between ages, nutrient requirements, and infection
necessitated the need to recommend micronutrient supplementation during helminth infection among
different age groups.
O B J E C T I V E The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of alteration in selected micronutrients
in pregnant women and…
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ABSTRACT
Background: There is little information on the possible impact of drugs used in the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis
(MDR-TB) on glycaemic levels. This study therefore assessed changes in glycated haemoglobin levels in patients with MDR-TB.
Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study involved 21 MDR-TB patients who were followed up for 6 months. Glycated
haemoglobin (HbA1c) level of each patient was determined before the commencement of MDR-TB drug regimen and at 2, 4 and 6
months post treatment as…
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Abstract
Presently, there is the dearth of information on the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on haematological parameters in patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the levels of selected haematological parameters in MDR-TB patients with or without HIV co-infection before the commencement of MDR-TB therapy. Complete blood count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined using an automated haematology analyzer and Westergreen method respectively in 115 patients with MDR-TB. Statistical…
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ABSTRACT
Experimental studies have shown numerous health disorders associated with occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides but evidence of impaired immune functions by pesticides in humans is scarce. This study determined complete blood count (CBC), serum immunoglobulin classes (IgE, IgA, IgM, IgG),acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and skin sensitivity prick test to common environmental allergens in 60 farm workers (30 pesticide applicators and 30 farmers) exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides compared with30 apparently healthy, non-exposed workers. Serum AChE activity, mean PCV level, total…
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Background
An understanding of the interplay between mental illnesses and metabolic
disorders is crucial. At present, in Nigeria, studies on coexistence of these
conditions are scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the
prevalence of obesity, metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolic
syndrome (MS) in adults with major mental illnesses.
Materials and methods
One hundred and twenty four patients with schizophrenia, depression and bipolar
disorder were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Blood pressure and
anthropometric indices were obtained…
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Aim: To assess the prevalent components of metabolic syndrome (MSC) and their
related determinants of lipid metabolism in the Nigerian for early diagnosis, prevention
Original Research Article
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 4(7): 740-752, 2014
741
and management of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and its associated diseases.
Study Design: Cohort study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan between March and August 2010.
Methodology: 534 apparently healthy Nigerian traders…
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Abstract
B A C K G R O U N D Helminth infection is an important health challenge. Because of modulation of the
immune response toward T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, the immunologic interplay that manifest during the
coexistence of helminth infection with other conditions is still poorly understood.
O B J E C T I V E This study determined the pattern of alteration in selected cytokines and immunoglobulin
E (IgE) in pregnant women, preschool aged children, and school-aged children…
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ABSTRACT
Undernourishment in HIV infected individuals exacerbates immunosuppression, acceleration of HIV replication and CD4 + T cell depletion. The production of human milk (lactogenesis) is dependent on factors in the blood therefore deranged blood parameters in HIV patients are expected to reflect in the components of breast milk. Study on effects of HIV infection on nutritional components of breast milk and plasma is scarce. This study assessed the impact which HIV infection might have on the nutritional quality of human…
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ABSTRACT
Despite the high mortality and morbidity associated with hyperglycemic emergencies (HEs), reliable biological
markers that could predict the severity and prognosis are largely unavailable. This study therefore, assessed the
performance of copeptin in predicting the severity and prognosis of HEs. Sixty patients with HEs [27 with diabetes
ketoacidosis (DKA) and 33 with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS)] were recruited into this cross-sectional
study. Serum copeptin was determined using ELISA. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was used to grade the severity of READ MORE Download Staff Profile


ABSTRACT
Dichlorvos is an organophosphate insecticide used indiscriminately in Nigeria in various insecticide formulations
due to its cheap production, accessibility, efficacy and affordability. Reactive oxygen species formation has been
implicated in the mechanism of dichlorvos toxicity. Reports on antioxidant-prooxidant status in human users of
dichlorvos are scarce and the few available reports are conflicting. 35 wistar rats were divided into 7 groups of 5
rats per group as follows; unexposed group, six groups exposed to dichlorvos for 1week, 2weeks, 3weeks,…
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Abstract
The interaction between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and dysfunction of both the kidney and liver is still poorly understood in different health states of SCA. This study determined serum levels of vitamin D and indices of liver and renal function in adult sickle cell anaemia subjects. Sixty subjects with sickle cell anaemia (30 in steady state [SSCA] and 30 in vaso-occlusive crisis [VOC]) and 30 apparently healthy individuals with HbAA genotype were recruited into this study. Standard methods were…
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Abstract
Prolonged exposure to organophosphate pesticides (Op) has been associated with various diseases. There is little information on which group of exposed farm workers that is more affected. This study therefore evaluated indices of hepatic and renal function in pesticide applicators and farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides. Thirty (30) pesticide applicators (PA), 30 farmers exposed to Op and 30 control subjects were recruited into this study. Serum activity of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) was determined using HPLC while total bilirubin (TBIL),…
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Abstract
Diabetes mellitus can induce release of free radicals and oxidative stress, which can trigger production of cytokines. Vernonia amygdalina has
antidiabetic activity due to its phytochemical constituents. This work was designed to determine possible immunological alterations in the
plasma levels of TNF-? and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the traditional application of V. amygdalina (Ewuro) leaves in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
The study populations include all 33 diabetes mellitus patients (51-67 years; male, 21; female, 12) who had not commenced…
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Abstract
Long-term/chronic insomnia occurs in patients for over one month; it can affect the functions of the immune system and responses, which may
involve cytokines. The aim was to determine alterations of Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-10 cytokines in long-term insomnia.
Thirty-three long-term/chronic insomnia patients (male, 22; female, 11) aged 47-61 years were initially recruited. Seven of them who were
infected with microbial agents were excluded from the study. Of the 26 free of infectious agents only 21…
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PATTERN OF URINARY EXCRETION OF SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM EGGS BY INFECTEDSUBJECTS AT ATISBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OYO STATE, NIGERIA


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Study Background: Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV)?positive patients could accelerate the progression of HIV infection, which may result into
immunosuppression due to immune responses involving cytokines and CD4 + cells.
Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine the immunochemical evidence of T. cruzi and
T. gondii parasitic infections in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome subjects in relationship with the
CD4+ count.
Materials and Methods: Fifty HIV?positive subjects (25 females and 25 males) aged…
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COMPARATIVE PATTERN OF THE FREQUENCY OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARIUM, HOOKWORM, AND SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM PARASITIC INFECTIONS AMONG THE ANAEMIC CHILDREN AGED 1-9YEARS IN RURAL NIGERIA


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THE IMMUNOCHEMICAL STATUS OF OF PATIENTS WITH ABNORMALLY RAISED BILE ACID RECIEVING TREATMENTS IN HERBAL/TRADITIONAL HOMES OF SOME RURAL COMMUNITIES IN NIGERIA 


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reservedAbstract Patients confirmed to be seropositive for human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection by Western blot technique attending Baptist Medical Centre, Saki, Oyo state-Nigeria were studied; including 30 males; 30 females; 20HIV mono-infected, 20HIV-HBV co-infected, 20HIV-HCV co-infected subjects aged 16 to 65 years. Age and sex matched apparently healthy HIV, HCV and HBV seronegative, subjects (N=50) consisting of 25 (50%) males and 25 (50%) females were recruited as controls. Plasma ALT, AST and Total Bile Acids were determined in the subjects…
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Pancytopaenia is the reduction or deficiency of all the three cellular components (Leucocyte,
PHeamoglobin and platelet concentration respectively) of blood. This is often found as a result of chemotherapy, infections and bone marrow failure.The study aims to determine the
prevalence of pancytopenia among HIVpatients.Two hundred subjects were studied which comprised of
100 HIV positive subjects, 50 were on ART with 37(74%) females and 13(26%) males while 50 were
ART naive with 28(56%) females and 22(44%) males attending ARTclinic in General…
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Background: The expression of ABO blood group antigens on red cell surface and a variety of
human cells, tissues and fluids is well documented. Studies in the recent times have reported
association between these blood group antigens and some disorders in man. Cancer,
Cardiovascular disease and infection are some of the disorders reported. The interplay has given
rise to the assertion that ABO blood group system has extended its clinical significance beyond
the natural frontier of transfusion Science. This narrative…
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The issue of privatization has been a subject of intense global debate in recent years. Many countries of the world have embarked on privatization programmes at different times. This is so in order to promote efficient allocation and management of resources. This study takes a critical look at the extent to which Privatisation has boosted growth in macro-capacity of the Nigerian economy. It also aimed at finding out the impediments to the full actualisation of the benefits of…
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The fight against poverty has been a major world developmental goal and it continued to pose serious threat to Nigerian economy. This have received attention from various scholars emphasizing the role of growth and inequality however neglecting the role of politics in an economy Therefore, this study seeks to examine the role of governance in the reduction of poverty in Nigeria. The study finds that good governance is a major missing tool that needs to be added to…
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Poverty is posing serious threat to many developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. Issues pertaining to poverty and government expenditure have received wider attention among scholars in various economies of the globe. However, there seems to be a gap in literature as to which aspect of government expenditure result in more developmental impact as well as the existence of a long-run relationship between government expenditure and poverty resulting in sustainable development. Therefore, this study seeks to analyse government expenditure in…
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One of the fundamental goals of every economy is the increase in economic growth. There has been a long-debate on the relationship between financial development and the growth of the economy. The banking sub-sector of the financial sector is an important part of the financial sector because of it linking of the deficit and surplus areas of the economy.  Electronic banking (E-banking) is now one of the most important and modern development and applications that has been witnessed…
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The global economic depression is negatively affecting the economies of the less developed countries of the world, especially through the fall in the international prices of primary export commodities. Although Nigeria is not fully integrated into the world economy, yet the impact of the global economic crisis is reverberating through the entire nation with the possibility of reversing any progress so far recorded in the social sector. This paper analyses the trend in social sector components in Nigeria…
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The issue of poverty is posing serious threat to the development of Nigeria economy. Poverty growth and income inequality have received much attention among scholars both on Nigeria and other economies of the world. Nevertheless, the existence of a causal relationship and the direction of causality among poverty growth and inequality have received little attention especially for Nigeria. Therefore, this study investigates the poverty-growth-inequality linkage to ascertain the existence and direction of causality in Nigeria and the possibility…
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The concomitant unequal distribution of the benefits of globalisation and the fear expressed by most developing countries about its negative impact, have made the question on the relationship between globalization (characterized by foreign direct investment, economy openness and net capital flows) and economic growth both in developed and developing countries lie at the heart of debates on economic development policy. This paper investigates the causal relationship between globalization (characterized by FDI and Openness) and Economic Growth using co-integration…
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The issue of poverty has continued to pose serious threat to the continued cordial existence of an economy like Nigeria. Issues pertaining to poverty and inequality have also continued to receive wider attention among scholars in various economies of the globe. However, there seems to be a gap in literature as to the existence of a causal relationship between poverty and inequality. Should there be causality; the direction of causality is yet to be known, especially as it…
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This paper examines the violent political conflicts that erupted in Tivland, Central Nigeria, at the attainment of political independence in 1960. At independence, Nigeria constituted of three regions representing the three major ethnic groups and political parties namely, the North (Hausa-Fulani), represented by the Northern People’s Congress (NPC), the East (Igbo),represented by National Council of Nigerian Citizens. (N.C.N.C), and the West (Yoruba), represented by the Action Group (AG). There was an attempt by the ruling northern oligarchy to…
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This paper examines the origin of disputes between two neighboring ethnic groups in Nigeria; the Tiv of Benue State and the Udam of Cross River State and the nexus of these disputes to the establishment of the markets found in their respective geographical areas, the Tsar Market (for the Tiv) and the Obudu Market (for the Udam).The paper also examines the rationale for disputes that arise over the location of market places that are placed within the same…
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This study is concerned with the nature and dynamics of indigenous or traditional African medicine in contemporary Nigeria. It illuminates the multi-faceted and often neglected roles that African native ‘doctors’ have been playing in addressing the health challenges of the people since the pre-literate era. With a particular focus on the Akpanya community of Igala land, Kogi State, North Central Nigeria, this study reveals that more than half of the people of Akpanya community still have high preference…
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Before the last quarter of the 20th century, history was a broad based discipline. It was universally studied and subject to objective scrutiny and analyses with the historian doing his best to reconstruct history from available facts. History at this time was percieved as an academic discipline based on empirical knowledge, objectivity and facts. As an academic discipline, history is more than 2400 years old.1 For most of this period it essentially told the truth about events…
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This paper is a dispassionate analysis of the activities of the dissident militant group, the Boko Haram, operating in the North-Eastern part of Nigeria since 2009. An in-depth analysis into the group’s nefarious activities has shown the level of fear and anxiety created in the minds of Nigerians giving different interpretations to its existence. Is the Boko Haram a political militia created to destabilise Nigeria by the political opponents of the administration who lost out in previous elections?…
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This paper gives a dispassionate analysis of the Tiv-Jukun conflicts in the Middle Benue Basin from 1976-2005. This is situated against a historical background of a peaceful coexistence between the two ethnic groups from pre-colonial times, that of hostilities in the colonial and even the contemporary period. Colonialism imposed artificial borders that took no cognizance of the people living on the land, sowing the seeds of conflicts and ushering in the politics of divide and rule. This placed…
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Ethnic militia groups in Nigeria, no doubt constitute one of the major threats to democratic consolidation in Africa’s most populous nation-state. The exit of military from politics in 1999 and the return of multiparty democracy opened up the Pandora for the proliferation of ethnic based violent armed militias in different parts of the country. The activities of militias in contemporary North Central Nigeria have become a source of worry to government and the public alike as the…
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Entrepreneurship is one of the most important drivers of job creation and economic growth, and is crucial for the development of a vibrant formal small and medium-sized business sector. It enhances productivity, growth and can also help find practical business solutions to social and environmental challenges, including climate change. Despite its importance, entrepreneurship is not always actively encouraged in all developing countries through dedicated policy initiatives. Both economic theory and practice demonstrate that entrepreneurship may generate social gains…
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Globalization is an age-long historical phenomenon that is contemporaneously defining the pace and pendulum of the economic, political and socio-cultural trajectories of nation-states world-wide. In most third world countries especially in Africa and Nigeria in particular, this capitalist process has been most pervasive and devastating particularly in Nigeria’s drive toward rapid industrialization. Thus, the Ajaokuta Iron and Steel Complex that was built by the Federal government of Nigeria in 1979 as a panacea to the multi-variegated crisis…
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The phenomenon of ethnic militias started in Nigeria in the 1990s, through it roots stretch back to the colonial period. Ethnic militias are youth based groups formed with the purpose of promoting and protecting the parochial interests of their ethnic groups and whose activities sometimes involve the use of violence. Their emergence in Nigeria also signaled some lack of confidence in the federal government’s ability to protect it citizens through the police and other security agencies. Ethnic militias…
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Surmounting the widespread challenges of underdevelopment has remained cardinal policy goals of successive administrations in Nigeria especially with the return of civil rule in Nigeria on 29th May 1999. Although the federal, state and local governments have committed staggering proportions of revenues to addressing problems of poverty, inequality, unemployment, infrastructural decay, among others, the quality and quantity of government development programmes however remains abysmally pygmy. This paper examines the role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in Igalaland, North…
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The Tiv are the largest single ethnic group in the Middle Benue Basin in Central Nigeria. They are the majority ethnic group in the present Benue State, Nigeria where they are found in fourteen Local Government Areas. The Tiv are estimated to number about five million people and about three million out of this number live in Benue State. (Okpeh,2007:2). The rest of them are found in considerable numbers in Southern Taraba State, parts of Nassarawa State, Plateau…
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This study examines the explosion of violent ethno-political conflicts in Central Nigeria in 1960. At the attainment of independence, Nigeria comprised three loosely amalgamated regions which later metamorphosed into three ethnic based political parties namely; the Northern People?s Congress(NPC), National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (N.C.N.C) in the East, and the Action Group (AG) in the West. With this political structure, the seed of minority domination was already sown. The main thrust of this paper is the…
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Women played important roles in the nationalist struggle in Nigeria. Through sheered demonstrations, revolts and riots, women openly challenged British colonial authority and their obnoxious policies in different parts of Nigeria. In most of these revolts and protests, many women were injured and killed by British agents in the bid to nip in the bud such anti-colonial struggle. This paper is an attempt to examine the Akpanya women protest of 1940 as part of the general women resistance…
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Nigeria as a country does not lack intellectuals, famous politicians and natural resources. Both the executive and legislative arms of government usually drawn from the academia of various backgrounds have been initiating promising policies and designing good programmes on socio-economic transformation, without achieving the desired and expected results. Considering the escalating poverty and unemployment which majority of Nigerians face, the government initiates measures towards poverty reduction but ironically, the more the government expects progress from policies and programmes…
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Effect of capacity planning on performance in the Nigerian brewing industry: Southeastern Perspective.  This study was designed to find out the effect of capacity planning on performance in the selected Nigerian brewing industry.  The study population comprised of 745 staff of selected brewing firms in South-South Nigeria with a derived sample size of 509.  Two research questions were raised and two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 significant level.  The questionnaire was adequately validated by experts and…
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The paper was concerned with the role of Vocational Training Centres on the Social and Economic lives of the populace in Deltal State.  The vocational training centres emphasized skills and knowledge required for a particular job function or trade management.  Socio-economic impacts which bordered on improving the well-being physically, emotionally, mentally and financially of the trainees was identified and discussed.  The positive impacts were identified to include peace building initiatives, standard of living, wealth and job creation opportunities. …
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Creativity and innovation are two great veritable tools of an entrepreneur that drives performance towards economic growth and development in any business concern.  This study was designed to investigate the place of entrepreneurship creativity and innovation on business performance in commercial banks.  The study population comprised of 132 staff of selected banks in South-South Nigeria.  All the population was used as the sample because of the manageable size.  Two research questions were raised and two hypotheses were formulated…
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Most successful economies are driven by high level of private sector participation in the economy alongside with good government policies and programs driving such framework.  With this era of public sector dominance and shrinking economic activities in our country, a lot of attention needs to be focused on entrepreneurial skills acquisition that creates employment and growth which is lacking.  Therefore, the aim of this paper is to discuss the need and importance of entrepreneurial skill in the development…
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This study was prompted by the desire to assess the relationship among partnering, trust and organizational efficiency in selected construction firms in North-East, Nigeria. It sought to:(i) ascertain the nature of the effect of partnering on organizational productivity in selected construction firms in North East, Nigeria; (ii) ascertain the extent of the relationship between partnering and trust in the selected construction firms in North East, Nigeria. The population of the study was 1662 staff of the selected construction…
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This paper examined recent and spatial patterns of manufacturing in Nigeria. In particular, the paper shows that small scale business in the industrial development of a country involved considerable artesian crafts firms in the early stages and growth. It concludes that the spatial pattern could change if industrialist adopt the strategy of industrial linkages and especially production subcontracting which has become a driving force in contemporary industrial development efforts in the world today. It is expected that the…
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This study is to examine whether forensic accountants make the judiciary more effective by providing credible testimonies in litigation processes. It adopted a library research base approach in gathering and analysing relevant data to the objective of this study. Extant literature studied relevant theories; court decided cases, empirical studies, promulgated Rules, publication and Act enacted in Nigeria, United Kingdom and the United States. This study revealed to a large extent that there are basic acceptable standards established for…
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The impact of the proposed integrated 330kV network on the transfer capacity of the existing 330kV network is analyzed in this work using ETAP 12.6 and the results analyzed with MATLAB software. The results obtained indicates that the transfer capacity of the entire network is increased by 2GW with the proposed integrated 330kV network. This will eradicate system collapse and more load will be accommodated in the network without stressing the network beyond it thermal limits.


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The analysis of the impact of integrating the power generated from Generation Company of Nigeria (GENCO), Nigeria Independent Power Project (NIPP) and the Independent Power Producers (IPP) into the existing 330kV transmission network is presented in this work. The analysis is carried out using ETAP 12.6 and MATLAB software for the existing and the proposed 330kV grid network. The result indicates that with the proposed integrated 330kV network, the power losses on each transmission lines reduced by 0.48MWwhich indicates 46%…
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The paper considered the significance of fringe benefits on employee morale and productivity in oil companies using Shell Petroleum and Development Company Warri in Southern Nigeria. The objective of this study was to find out the significance of fringe benefits on employee morale and staff productivity. Three hypotheses were tested based on the direction and collection of data from various respondents through administered questionnaires and direct interviews. A total of fifty (50) questionnaires were distributed to the categories…
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The study aims to explore the effect of supply chain management on organizational performance focusing on Private manufacturing enterprises (PMEs) in South-East. The study used a questionnaire survey of the views of staff of selected companies on the subject matter with sample size of 553. The respondents interviewed as well as experts were approached face to face. Reliability of the research was tested using Crombach Alpha with a result of 0.91. Similarly, Pearson product moment correlation and Regression…
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Study Background: Moringa oleifera, (miracle tree), has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases.
Moringa has been the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there have been scanty information
on its sub-acute effect on the kidneys.
Aims: This work was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the heart
and kidneys of adult Wistar rats.
Settings and Design: Twenty-eight adult healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into 4
groups…
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Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is associated with adverse
reproductive outcomes and an increased risk for HIV transmission. Data on the
prevalence of trichomoniasis among women in rural Nigeria are sparse. Against
this background, this study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated
risk factors for T. vaginalis infection among women of reproductive age in rural
Okada community of Edo State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A pair of
high vaginal swabs was collected from 311 women (consisting of 217 pregnant
and…
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ABSTRACT
Aim: To study characteristics of pulmonary tubercu- losis amongst patients attending chest clinics in Benin City. Materials and Methods: A total of 816 subjects comprising of 563 (69%) males and 253 (31%) fe- males were enlisted for this study. Sputum specimen and blood were collected from all subjects. Acid al- cohol fast bacilli from sputa were examined using the Ziehl Nelson staning technique. Hemoglobin concen- tration was determined using the method described by Dacis and Lewis. Result: Pulmonary tuberculosis…
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Abstract
Introduction: Seasonal variation in immunity has been found in healthy individuals and in association with some diseases. Data on seasonal prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is sparse. This study aimed at determining the seasonal seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Benin City.
Material and methods: A total of 1,177 HIV-positive and 503 non-HIV-positive patients were recruited for this study. Venous blood was collected from all…
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Abstract Introduction
U rinary schistosomiasis is endemic in Nigeria Urinary shistosomiais is a major public health
and represents a significant public health challenge problem in developing countries of the world. It is
especially among inhabitants of rural areas. Against reported to be endemic in Africa, especially among
this background, this study aimed at determining the residence of rural communities1 . Urinary
prevalence and associated risk factors of urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in Nigeria1, 2, 3. Urogenital
schistosomiasis among children in…
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Abstract Introduction
Hand hygiene is a very important procedure in Normal hand flora and contamination have
infection control. Washing agents commonly in use been implicated in many diseases thus causing major
were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing problem to the world for a long time until the discovery
hand floral and cotton towel was used as drying agent. of antibiotics (penicillins) in 1940's. This brought a
Agents studied include; water alone, carex soap, dettol, relief until the development of…
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Abstract
Research in human malaria disease has consistently been hindered in developing countries where this disease is
endemic, due to the prohibitive cost of constructing and maintaining currently available experimental mouse
models. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a cost-effective mouse model that may be used as research tool for
studying human malaria disease. Plasmodium falciparum-infected human blood samples were cultured invitro for
92 hours, and invivo malaria infection was induced by intraperitoneally injecting 0.5ml of the Plasmodium
falciparum cultures…
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Abstract
The use of Nigella sativa concoction is very popular for treatment of different illnesses and its role on opportunistic organisms in Human
Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection required antimicrobial investigation. Against this background this study aimed at determining the
antimicrobial effect of Nigella sativa concoction on clinical isolates (Staphylococus aureus, Escherichai coli, Streptococus feacalis and
Candida albicans) obtained from HIV infected patients in Nigeria using the Agar disc diffusion and dilution methods. All clinical isolates
showed varying degree of susceptibility…
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It was estimated by World Health Organisation that about 80% of Africans used herbal remedies for
illness and HIV infection has no cure led many HIV patients to source for alternative or complementary
therapy. A structured questionnaire was administered to 528 medical practitioners in Nigeria health
institutions that attended national conferences on HIV/AIDS 2008 to 2009 to assess their attitudes to the
use of herbal remedy by HIV patients. 108 medical doctors, 304 nurses, 92 medical laboratory staff and
24…
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ABSTRACT
Background: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of malaria and anemia among children
in rural community of Okada, Edo State Nigeria, as well as to assess the level of use of Insecticide
treated bed nets and its impact on prevalence of malaria and anemia among study population.
Methods: Thick blood films from 226 children with signs and symptoms of malaria in Okada community
were stained and examined for presence of malaria parasites. Hemoglobin concentration of
all children was…
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Lassa fever is endemic in west Africa. Persons at greatest risk are those living in rural
areas with poor sanitary conditions and overcrowding. Against this background, this
study aimed at assessing public awareness of Lassa fever among residents of three rural
communities in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 380 persons resident in rural Okada,
Ogbese and Utese communities of Edo State, Nigeria were enrolled for this study. Age
range of participants was between 15 and 69 years. A structured…
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Abstract
Objective: To determine type and frequency of omission of relevant
data on laboratory request forms at a rural tertiary Hospital in
Nigeria.
Methods: A total of 2,362 laboratory request forms sent to the
Pathology Department of Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital
Okada within a 10 month period were scrutinized for specifi c
parameters. The forms were evaluated to determine what section
was incorrect and/or incomplete and the frequency of such errors.
Results: Data mostly omitted was patient’s age, observed in…
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Objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not uncommon among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Severity of HBV infection and treatment outcome are associated with specific HBV genotypes. No study has reported the types of HBV genotypes circulating among HIV-infected subjects in Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of HBV, as well as its genotypic distribution among HIV-infected subjects in Benin City, Nigeria.
Methods: Whole blood was collected from a total of 564 HIV-infected and 250…
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Abstract
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims:
This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural
community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained
from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera
samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were…
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This study was undertaken to investigate the consequences of home video on teenage behaviour in Calabar Municipality and Calabar South Local Government Areas of Cross River State.  It specifically sought to find out whether there was any relationship between home video and teenagers’ indecent dressing and sexual activity.  To achieve the aim of this study, two research questions were generated to guide the study.  A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 97 respondents.  Two Local Government…
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Community Media is community owned, peoples’ oriented and less profit driven.  It has the capacity to facilitate and smoothen effective communication in places where the presence of Mass Media is not well felt thus fostering development in other media marginalized communities.  Through community Media, crimes at grassroot level can be prevented while civil education, cross-gender dialogue, cultural literacy among other things can be harnessed for developmental purposes.  This paper holistically takes a look at community media and new…
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Communication Satellite in the wireless age has the potentials of bridging the gulf that exists between civilized and developing nation. If well used, communication Satellite is a potent infrastructure of addressing technology convergence for holistic national development.  This paper examines Nigeria’s technological efforts so far at bridging the Digital Divide through communication Satellite.  This discourse focuses on the uses and challenges of Satellite communication in Nigeria.   The paper relies on secondary data to explore the fate of Nigeria…
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This paper takes a look at the mass media as agent of social cohesion and social mobilization for holistic national development.  It examines the challenges of development communication and highlights the relevance of development journalism in Nigeria.  The paper also beams its searchlight on the approaches of development communication that can domesticate for a way forward in the country.  Anchored on development media theory, the discourse adopts a qualitative research approach as data were collected and analyzed using…
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a b s t r a c t
Background: The aim of this study was to assess public and private medical diagnostic laboratories in
Nigeria for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and measures.
Methods: A total of 80 diagnostic laboratories in biosafety level 3 were assessed for the presence of
biosafety equipment, devices, and compliance rate with biosafety practices. A detailed questionnaire and
checklist was used to obtain the relevant information from enlisted laboratories.
Results: The results showed the…
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Summary: World Health Organisation estimated that about 80% of Africans use herbal remedies for illness. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which was believed to have no cure led many HIV patients to source for alternative or complementary therapy. A structured questionnaire was administered to 640 HIV patients in selected Nigerian HIV/AIDS clinics from 2009 to 2011 to assess their attitudes to the use of herbal remedy. Six hundred and ten (610) of the respondents were diagnosed by medical doctor and…
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ABSTRACT
This study aimed at assessing knowledge of HIV/AIDS among residents of three
rural communities in Nigeria. A total of 371 persons residing in selected rural
communities were recruited for this study. A structured questionnaire was used
to collect data from all participants. Results of the study showed a generally
high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS in all communities surveyed. However,
among study participants, knowledge of mode of prevention and management
of HIV infection was poor as was knowledge of…
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The press is one of the powerful forces of social engineering in any society.  The potency of the press is hinged on the fact that it has the power to appeal to a relatively large, heterogeneous and anonymous audience almost simultaneously.  The press is an effective tool in policy formulation and execution.  The press is often looked upon by many people as purveyors for good governance.  This paper x-rays the agenda setting role of the press in Nigeria…
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Security which connotes protection from harm and injury is one of the critical issues in any democratic setting.  Media practitioners in Africa have been professionally battling with the art and science of security reporting in the continent which has been ravaged by plethora of security reporting in a democratic setting within the Nigerian context.  This study uses library research method because data collection was purely based on secondary materials.  The paper makes candid recommendations for the improvement of security reporting…
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Cultural imperialism is a dynamic concept that is defined in the context of different variables – economic political and technological domination of the centre nation on periphery nations.   Most cultural imperialism theorists are westerners and therefore do not bother much to apply the concept from the perspective of Africa.   There seems to be a missing link in the crucial debate of cultural imperialism especially between developed and developing nations.  This paper revisits cultural imperialism theory with particular emphasis…
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The mass media as an institution is a potent tool of social engineering. Nigerian was in the eyes of the international and local media during the country’s April 2007 general elections.  Pressmen, as social engineers and agenda setters all over the world beamed their searchlights on the elections which h opened a new chapter in the nation’s electoral history successful transition from one civilian administration to another.  This paper appraises the role of the Nigerian media as one…
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ABSTRACT
Background and Aim: Raw Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit juice contains substances
of health promoting bioactivities. Plasma iron is stored in the liver and blood cells. Platelets
are blood cells involved in blood clotting for homeostasis while haemoglobin (found on red
blood cells) concentration is an index of anaemia and polycythemia. This work was therefore
designed to assess plasma iron, feritin, blood platelets and hemoglobin concentration in
rabbits given amoxicillin overdose supplemented with raw cucumber fruit Juice. Methods:
Fifteen rabbits…
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Study Background: Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV)?positive patients could accelerate the progression of HIV infection, which may result into
immunosuppression due to immune responses involving cytokines and CD4 + cells.
Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine the immunochemical evidence of T. cruzi and
T. gondii parasitic infections in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome subjects in relationship with the
CD4+ count.
Materials and Methods: Fifty HIV?positive subjects (25 females and 25 males) aged…
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Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the possible inflammatory responses in hypercholesterolemia patients receiving treatment using raw liquid extract of young cashew leaves in some herbal homes in Nigeria.
Methods: Hypercholesterolemia patients (27: Aged 31–53 years; female - 10 and male - 17) 20 herbal homes in Saki-West, Saki-East, and ATISBO local governments constituting a Federal constituency in Nigeria, and non-hypercholesterolemia apparently healthy participants (50: Aged 20–64 years; female - 25 and male - 25) were recruited…
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Study Background: Moringa oleifera, (miracle tree), has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases.
Moringa has been the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there have been scanty information
on its sub-acute effect on the kidneys.
Aims: This work was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the heart
and kidneys of adult Wistar rats.
Settings and Design: Twenty-eight adult healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into 4
groups…
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Study Background: Tumor necrosis factor?alpha (TNF??) is a proinflammatory cytokine which worsen
disease, interleukin?4 (IL?4) is an anti?inflammatory cytokine that enhance healing process while complement
4 mediates inflammation. Plasmodiasis and lymphatic filariasis can generate immune responses involving
cytokines and complements.
Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine plasma level of TNF??, complement 4 (C4), and
IL?4 in Plasmodium co?infection with filariasis.
Materials and Methods: The test individuals recruited for this study include microfilaria monoinfected
patients (30), Plasmodium monoinfected…
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Introduction: Guava leaf contains low calorie, vitamins, minerals antioxidants, polyphenolic, and flavonoid compounds which may play
important role in prevention of cancers, aging, cell differentiation, apoptosis and may also have immune enhancing properties while ibuprofen
is a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug commonly used to relief pain. It reduces hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.
This project work was therefore designed to evaluate the plasma level of pro (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?)) and anti inflammatory
(interleukin 4…
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Introduction: Malaise involves general discomfort, uneasiness, or pain which could indicate microbial infection or other diseases which could
be as a result of immune response. Methods: The study population was 200 malaise anicteric hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)?seronegative
patients (females – 100; males – 100) aged 5–76, and 111 apparently healthy anicteric nonmalaise age?matched subjects who were
HBsAg?seronegative (females – 56 and males – 55) were recruited as test and control subjects, respectively. Immunochemical assay of
anti?HBe, anti?HCV, HBsAg, and…
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Background: Raw cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit juice contains phytochemicals and phytonutrients of antioxidative bioactivities while
overdose of amoxicillin could bring about drug-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is an oxidative index while
catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are scavenging antioxidants. This work was therefore
designed to determine the scavenging antioxidative bioactivities of cucumber (C. sativus) fruit juice in rabbits overdosed with amoxicillin.
Methods: Fifteen rabbits of the same sex divided into three groups of 5…
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ABSTRACT
Study Background: Possible metabolic disorders of lipid, carbohydrate and protein are associated
with Diabetes mellitus which may include complications such as retinopathy considering the
pathophysiology of this metabolic disease.
Aims and Objectives: This work was designed to determine apolipoproteins (ApoA, ApoB), Total
cholesterol (TC), Total Triglyceride (TG), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), Very Low-density
Lipoprotein (VLDL), High-density Lipoprotein (HDL-C) in Diabetes mellitus patients with or without
retinopathy.
Materials and Methods: 261 subjects were recruited for this study from the Medical outpatient…
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ABSTRACT
Study Background: Plasma IL-2 and IL-10 are cytokines for immuno regulation and immuno
modulation in infectious diseases. IL10 inhibit synthesis of IFN gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNF. Plasmodium
infection is associated with reproduction of cytokines for innate and acquired immunity.
Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine variations in plasma IL-2 and IL-10 in
relationship with plasmodium parasite density.
Materials and Methods: Out of one hundred and sixteen (116) initially recruited only fifty
Plasmodium infected female and male…
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Abstract
Alloimmunisation occurs when an antigen is introduced into an immune-competent host.
This commonly occurs following transfusion of blood or in pregnancy, when red cells
that bear antigens absent in the individual's blood enters the circulation. Five patients’
blood samples were brought for compatibility testing which includes blood grouping,
antibody screening and identification in the event of positive screening and crossmatching
with the available blood in the bank for transfusion. This narrative review
emphasises the benefit and criticality of comprehensive…
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Abstract: Inflammatory response is a form of immune response which could be
caused by infectious agents and toxic chemicals. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf
extract contains phytonutrients such as protein, vitamins, calcium, and iron; and is
also a rich source of antioxidants which could be attributed to the traditional and
scientific claims in the treatment of anaemia. This work was designed to determine
possible pro and anti-inflammatory responses in the traditional application of raw
liquid extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf (iyana ipaja-chaya)…
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Abstract: Gluconeogenesis involves formation of glucose from the breakdown of
protein to form glycogenic amino acid and lipid such as triglyceride to generate
glycerol which is further utilized for the formation of glucose. Cashew (Anacardium
occidentale) leaf has some non-scientific but traditional health benefit claims such
as in the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. This work was designed to
determine the evidence of Gluconeogenesis in rabbits given ypung cashew leaf
extract using Plasma Value of Cortisol, Glycerol, Cortisol Binding Globulin READ MORE Download Staff Profile


ABSTRACT
Study Background: Flunitrazepam, Tramadol and Codeine are irrationally used as energy
booster, psychoactives and as recreational drugs apart from their normal applications to relieve
pains (Tramadol and Codeine), cough (Codeine) or as sedative (Flunitrazepam). High doses could
induce inflammatory and acute phase responses.
Aim and Objectives: This work was designed to determine the Immunological Effect of low and
High Doses of Tramadol, Codeine and Flunitrazepam on fasting Plasma Total Bile Acid,
Cortisol(Anti-inflammatory Agent) and Cortisol Binding Globulin (Acute Phase…
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ABSTRACT
Study Background: Cnidoscolous aconitifolius leaf (Chaya; Efo Iyana ipaja in Yoruba language)
is a common vegetable plant served as sauce and has many traditional health benefit claims such
as treatment of alcoholism, insomnia, gout, scorpion stings, memory and vision impairment owing
to its phytochemical and phytonutrient constituents.
Aim and Objectives: This work was designed to determine the cholesterol lowering effect of
Cnidoscolous aconitifolius in rabbits induced with hypercholesterolemia using egg yolk.
Materials and Methods: Fifteen (15) rabbits grouped into…
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A B S T R A C T
________
1. INTRODUCTION
Increase in the incidence and prevalence of human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been linked
with women of child-bearing age internationally. Vertical
International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences
Available online at www.pharmahealthsciences.net
Received: 13 Mar 2017
Accepted: 26 Mar 2017
Study Background: Unplanned Teenage pregnancy out of wedlock could be as a result or
cause psychosocial and economic challenges which may make the affected teenager
susceptible to…
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A B S T R A C T
________
1. INTRODUCTION
Complement C3 and C4 are innate immune materials but
could interplay between adaptive and innate immunity 1.
Their major functions include: opsonization, lysis and
International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences
Available online at www.pharmahealthsciences.net
Received: 21 Mar 2017
Accepted: 05 April 2017
Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute phase protein and also an immune parameter produced by the
liver which binds free haemoglobin in the blood. Complement 3…
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ABSTRACT
Study Background: Guava (Psidium guajava) fruit juice contains health promoting bioactive phytonutrients
and phytochemicals applied in the traditional treatment of diseases in southwestern Nigeria. It is an edible fruit
taken by almost everyone as beverage. Acetaminophen extra contains 500mg of Acetaminophen and 65mg
Caffeine and as such the drug is commonly used to relieve pain. The drug is readily accessible by individuals
making it susceptible to drug abuse especially overdose.
Aim and Objective: This work was therefore designed to…
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Abstract
Severe clinical manifestations of asthma have been associated with menstrual cycle. Possible complication of asthma was reported to be infertility. White yam commonly used as food in South- West in Nigeria contains antioxidants and phytoestrogen. Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine the bioactivities of two weeks white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) diet in asthmatic female students in relationship with mentrual cycle using luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Thirty nine asthmatic female students of…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Watermelon juice contains phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, saponnins, 68.0285 mg/k
fresh wt of lycopene (a major and potent antioxidant found in the succulent part of the fruit), including ? -
carotene, vitamins (B, C and E), minerals (K, Mg, Ca and Fe), amino acid (citrulline) and phenolics. Panadol
extra contains 500 mg of acetaminophen and 65 mg of caffeine. Panadol Extra is 30% more powerful when
compared to standard paracetamol.
Aim and Objective: This work was designed to…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Watermelon juice that contains antioxidants in addition to other vitamins and minerals is being
used as beverage to alleviate thirst in Nigeria. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of watermelon juice revealed
4537.83?g/100g Lycopene and 308.71 ?g/100g ?-carotene as major and potent antioxidants. Panadol extra
contains 500 mg Paracetamol and 65 mg Caffeine. It is available to people over the counter and is being used
blindly to treat pain. Glutathione and cysteine have antioxidant properties. Glutathione biosynthesis requires
amino acids such…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Raw extract of Guava leaves (Psidium guajava) have been used effectively and traditionally to
treat common ailments such as Diabetes mellitus (type II) diarrhoea, toothache and hypertension in South
Western Nigeria. These are non-scientific health benefit claims.
Aim and Objective: This study was designed to determine cholesterol lowering effect of guava leaf (Psidium
guajava) extract on egg yolk induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
Materials and Methods: Fifteen rabbits were bought from OjaIkoko-a major market in Owo-Nigeria.
This rabbits were grouped…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Solanecio biafrae (Èfó Wòròwó) is an important vegetable plant commonly grown in cocoa
plantation in South-West geopolitical zone of Nigeria majorly in Ondo and Ekiti-States which has some
traditional treatment claims such as cough-cure, for heart-troubles, to stop bleeding from cuts, rheumatic pain,
prurigenic, allergies and localized oedemas.
Aim and Objective: This study was designed to determine Scavenging antioxidative bioactivities of Solanecio
biafrae (Wòròwó).
Materials and Methods: Twenty five rabbits classified into 5 groups of five rabbits each…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Watermelon juice is a common bevrages used as food supplement for refreshment in most cases
to relief thirst. It contains health promoting phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals. Panadol extra is a common
drug used to relief pains. These two materials are easily accessible to people and as such could be abused.
Aim and Objective: This work was designed to measure the effects of watermelon on Total Antioxidant Status,
Red Blood Cell (RBC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (HB), Mean…
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ABSTRACT
Background to the Study: Malabar Spinach (Amunututu in Yoruba) - Basella alba, is a common leafy
vegetable that contains phytochemicals such as tannin, saponin, alkaloid, terpenoid, flavonoid, glycoside and
phenolic compounds in addition to vitamins and minerals.
Aim and Objective: This study was designed to determine the hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic and aqueous
extract Malabar Spinach in rabbits overdosed with paracetamol.
Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits weighing 0.7-1.4 Kg classified into five experimental groups of 5
rabbits each labeled…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Watermelon juice contain antioxidants in addition to other vitamins and minerals consumed as
beverage to relieve thirst in Nigeria as it is made up of 90% water. Panadol extra is most available analgesic to
many people and could be irrationally used to relieve pain.
Aim and Objective: This work was designed to evaluate the effect of watermelon juice in rabbits overdosed
with Panadol extra using Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), C - reactive protein (CRP) and Haptoglobin (Hp).
Materials and…
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Abstract
Background: Corn silk contains health promoting phytochemicals which could be applied in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Aim and objectives: This was designed to evaluate the effect of corn silk extract on lipid profile, CK-MB and LDH. Methods: Fifteen rabbits divided into three experimental groups of 5 rabbits each were studied. The control group(A) was not ingested with the extract throughout the period of study. Group B was ingested with the water extract for 3 weeks while group C…
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Abstract:
Background: Watermelon juice that contains antioxidants in addition to other vitamins and minerals is being used as beverage to alleviate thirst in Nigeria. Acetaminophen extra is most available to people and could be irrationally used to relieve pain. Aim and
Objective: This work was designed to evaluate the effect of watermelon juice in rabbits overdosed with acetaminophen extra using Creatinine, Urea, Glutathione-S-transferase, and Uric acid.
Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits classified into six experimental groups labelled A-F (and sub…
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Abstract: Cashew leaves (Anacardium occidentale) is a medicinal plant applied in the treatment of some nonscientific
claims of common diseases in South-Western Nigeria such as hypertension . It contains phytochemicals such
as Phenolic, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes and 33.52% to 46.26% of dietary fiber. This work was therefore designed
to determine the Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Cashew leaf (Anacardium occidentale) extract on Egg Yolk Induced
Hypercholesterolaemic Rabbits. Fifteen rabbits classified into control group A of five rabbits; experimental group B
induced…
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Abstract: Herbal treatment is currently attracting more patronage due to the effectiveness and low cost of treatments.
Many herbs contains phytochemicals of health benefits. Some traditional ways of administering herbal treatments could
bring about cross-infection. This work was designed to determine the biochemical and Immunochemical status of
patients receiving herbal treatment in some herbal homes in rural Nigeria. Fifty patients receiving herbal treatments
were recruited for this work. The patients were tested for anti-HIV, anti-HCV and HBsAg immunochemically by ELIZA READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Abstract

Background:- Jaundice is a common clinical condition among anaemic children.
Aim and Objective:- This work was designed to evaluate the Plasma Level of Total Antioxidants and Frequency of HbSC, HbSS, HbAA, HbAS, HbAC and G6PD Deficiency in Icteric Children Presenting with Anaemia.
Materials and Methods:- One hundred icteric children aged 3-12 years presenting with anaemia were recruited for this work from the General Hospital, Oka-Akoko-Ondo state.Alkaline cellulose acetate membrane haemoglobin electrophoresis was carried out on the subjects to…
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ABSTRACT
Background
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, being one of the leading causes of death among women and men. Emerging evidence suggests the role of lipid in the development of breast cancer. It becomes a great concern for the modern man and medical curiosity to further investigate alteration in lipid profile and hormone sensitive lipases genes among breast cancer patients in Nigeria.
Aim and Objective
This study was designed to investigate and compare the atherogenic…
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ABSTRACT
Background
While co-infection with HBV and malaria is a major public health problem in large areas of the world, the mutual interactions between the two pathogens are poorly understood.
Aim and Objective
This study is designed to investigate the renal biomarkers in plasmodium infected HBsAg seropositive patients. Method
Semi structured and pre tested questionnaires were administered to 100 participants to obtain their demographic information. From each individual subject, 5 ml of blood sample was obtained via venopuncture from the…
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ABSTRACT
Background
Basella alba (amunututu) is a common leafy vegetable commonly prepared as soup among the Yoruba ethnic groups. It contains phytochemicals such as tannin, saponin, alkaloid, terpenoid, flavonoid, glycoside, phenolic, vitamins and minerals.
Aim and Objective
This study was designed to determine the lowering effect of ethanolic and aqueous extract Basella alba on Total cholesterol(CHOL-T), Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-C),Total Triglycerides(TG-T), High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C).
Materials and Methods
Twenty five rabbits weighing 0.7-1.3Kg classified into five experimental groups of 5 rabbits…
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Abstract
Background: HbSS and HbSC are a group of genetic blood disorders. They are examples of sickle cell diseases.The complication of sickle cell disease could affect spleen, brain, eyes, lungs, liver, heart, kidneys, penis, joints, bones, or skin. Aim and Objective: This work was designed to measure plasma ALT, AST, Albumin,Se, Zn and Uric acid in HbSS and HbSC patients in Saki-West Local Government area of Oyo state-Nigeria. Materials and Methods: HbSS and HbSC patients in crisis and in non-crisis…
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Abstract
Background: Liquid extract of Morinda lucida leaf has been demonstrated to have antiplasmodial activities. Some phytochemicals
act as preventive and or scavenging antioxidants. This study aimed to investigate the preventative and scavenging properties of
the raw liquid extract of M. lucida leaf using plasma myoglobin, transferrin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)
peroxidase. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight Plasmodium-infected patients aged 29-47 years that have not been treated with
any antimalaria medication but have decided to be treated traditionally using…
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Abstract:
Physiological and hormonal changes in ovulation could increase the severity of asthma as a result of increase in cellular immune response leading to excessive release and utilization of immune cells in response to the allergic reaction. This work aimed at determining possible alterations in haematological parameters in asthmatic female students during ovulation. Thirty (30) asthmatic female students aged 17 to 41 years observing regular menstrual cycle as test subjects and fifty (50) non asthmatic female students aged 18 to…
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Abstract:
Watermelon juice is commonly used as beverage and to relieve thirst. It contains phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, saponnins. The fruits are rich in lycopene and with a total antioxidant capacity similar to tomato The fruits are also rich source of ? -carotene, vitamins (B, C and E), minerals (K, Mg, Ca and Fe), amino acid (citrulline) and phenolics. This work therefore aimed at determining yhe health promoting bioactivities of fruit juice of water melon (citrullus lanatus) in rabbits overdosaged…
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Abstract
Background to the Study: Corn silk contains phytochemicals of medical benefits such as proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Aim and Objective: This study aimed at the evaluation of the scavenging property of corn silk extract in oxidative stress induced rabbits using corticosterone. Materials and Methods: Fifteen rabbits divided into three experimental groups (A-Control, B-treated with aqueous extract and C-treated with…
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Abstract
This study was designed to determine the serum albumin, GGT and LDH level in relationship with the CD4
count and hepatitis B and C coinfection in HIV patient. Sixty HIV patients aged 16 to 75 years classified
according to the CD4 cell count value and with reference to HBV/HCV co-infection status were studied. Viral
Immunochemical status of the patients was determined by ELIZA and Immunoblotting. CD4 cell count was
estimated by flow cytometry while the plasma LDH, GGT and…
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Abstract
Liver markers indicate liver disorders that could be caused by drugs and infection such as hepatotropic viruses or
its co-infection with HIV. Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of the combination of at least three
antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to maximally suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease. This
study was designed to determine the effect of antiretroviral therapy in co-infection of HIV with hepatitis B virus
on serum ALT, GGT and LDH. Seventy six patients aged…
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ABSTRACT The risk of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes is about 30-40%, and it is considered the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. This Study is aimed to determine the association between non-HDL cholesterol and inflammation in the development of diabetic nephropathy and to identify a possible predictor for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty diabetic subjects were recruited for the study; 40 diabetic and normoalbuminuric were used as positive controls and another 40 diabetic and microalbuminuric…
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Abstract Corn silk contains phytochemicals of medical benefits such as proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Extract of corn silk is being applied traditionally in the treatment of some medical conditions. This study therefore, aimed at the evaluation of the effect of corn silk extract on liver markers and plasma glucose. Fifteen rabbits of either sex divided into three experimental groups of…
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Abstract This study was carried out to determined the variation in microbiota of five section of Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital Okada. Samples were collected using the settled plate techniques for the enumeration of bacterial and fungal isolates. The air specimens were collected three times; in the morning between the hours of 8 am and 10 am, in the afternoon between 12 noon and 2 pm and in the evening between the hours of 4pm and 6pm. The total heterotrophic microbial…
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Abstract Background to the Study: Blind therapeutic management is a common feature of the traditional management of clinical cases that may obscure immunochemical and biochemical abnormalities such as viral infections and abnormally raised total bile acid (TBA) which may make treatments unsuccessful. Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine some viral markers of patients with abnormally raised Total Bile Acid receiving treatments in herbal/traditional homes of some rural communities in Nigeria. Materials and Method: Fifty one (51(25.1%)) of…
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Abstract Background to the Study: Pathophysiology of Plasmodium infection and the metabolism of the phytochemicals of raw liquid extract of Vernonia amygdalina used in the traditional treatment of Plasmodium spp infection in Saki-East Local Government area of Oyo state -Nigeria involve the hepatocytes, which could bring about biochemical alterations in the plasma level of albumin, fibrinogen, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Total Bile Acids (TBA). Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine the effect of the raw extract of…
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Abstract Background to the study: Pathophysiology of Plasmodium (vivax, ovale, falciparum and malariae) infection involves liver. Liver dysfunction and destruction of tissues could be indicated by the plasma level of Total Bile Acid (TBA) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH). Aim and Objective: This work was designed to evaluate the pattern of parasite density, plasma total bile acids, and Lactate dehydrogenase in Plasmodium infected patients in rural community. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Kishi, the Headquarter of Irepo…
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Abstract Patients confirmed to be seropositive for human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection by Western blot technique attending Baptist Medical Centre, Saki, Oyo state-Nigeria were studied; including 30 males; 30 females; 20HIV mono-infected, 20HIV-HBV co-infected, 20HIV-HCV co-infected subjects aged 16 to 65 years. Age and sex matched apparently healthy HIV, HCV and HBV seronegative, subjects (N=50) consisting of 25 (50%) males and 25 (50%) females were recruited as controls. Plasma ALT, AST and Total Bile Acids were determined in the subjects…
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Abstract Raw liquid extract of Avocado pear leaf is of medicinal importance in the treatment of hypertension. In Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, this extract is being used as an alternative therapy in the treatment of hypertension in human subjects. This work was designed to evaluate the Effect of Liquid Extract of Pear Avocado Leaf used in the Traditional Treatment of Hypertension on the Plasma Levels of Aminotransferases, Total Bile Acids, Total and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol. Fifty (50) anicteric…
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Abstract
Heamolytic disease of the newborn is a neonatal disease associated with red cells heamolysis resulting
from red cell antigens of the foetus and mother red cells antibodies. This study involved a
cross sectional laboratory based analytical survey, eighty neonates with pyrexia of unknown origin
and twenty neonates apparently healthy were selectected for this study. ABO and Rh blood
group, Direct Coombs’ test, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase estimation and blood culture
were performed on blood samples collected from each neonate. Blood group…
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Abstract
Worsened perinatal outcomes and increased rates of maternal morbidity are consequences of co-infection of HIV and
Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women. This study was designed to ascertain the proportion of co-infection of
both diseases in pregnant mothers and babies born to HIV-infected mothers.
A total of 149 pregnant mothers and 30 babies of HIV-infected mothers were engaged in a longitudinal study for 18
months in the endemic area of Saki and Ibadan. Only babies born to HIV infected mothers…
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Abstract
This work was designed to characterize the HIV viral antibodies in HIV infected and non-HIV infected HBsAg
seropositive patients. Fifty non HIV infected (male = 25; female = 25)and 50 HIV infected HBsAg seropositive
patients (male – n = 25; female – n = 25) aged 6 – 64 years recruited from the medical outpatient department of
Baptist Medical Centre, Saki – Oyo State – Nigeria were investigated as test subjects. Fifty apparently healthy
HIV and HBsAg seronegative individuals…
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Abstract
Jaundice is the yellowish pigmentation of sclera of eye, skin and body fluids. It is associated with hepatitis B
virus infection due to the destruction of the infected hepatocytes and intrahepatic-cholestasis caused by the scars
of the healed hepatocytes. Hepatitis B patients that have never had jaundice are referred to as preicteric patients,
while those that have recovered from jaundice are referred to as posticteric hepatitis patients. Those ones
suffering from jaundice are referred to as icteric patients. This…
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Abstract
Jaundice is associated with hepatitis B virus infection due to the destruction of the infected hepatocytes and intrahepatic-cholestasis caused by the scars of the healed hepatocytes. Hepatitis B patients that have never had jaundice are referred to as preicteric patients, while those that have recovered from jaundice are referred to as posticteric hepatitis patients. Those ones suffering from jaundice are referred to as icteric patients. This research work was designed to determine and compare the serological profiles of HBsAg…
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Abstract

This study investigates the efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale), garlic (Allium sativum) and both plants combined in rats
infected with Kleibsiella pneumoniae. The rats were treated with the plant extracts after symptoms of pneumonia infection were
noticed in all the groups; the treatment lasted for seven consecutive days. The average weight gains in the post-administration
were: in garlic, ginger, mixture (males), mixture (females) and control were 27.0g,-36.2g, 6.0g, 38.8g and 78.8g respectively.
There was a significant reduction in packed…
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Abstract
This study investigates the efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale), garlic (Allium sativum) and both plants combined in rats
infected with Kleibsiella pneumoniae. The rats were treated with the plant extracts after symptoms of pneumonia infection were
noticed in all the groups; the treatment lasted for seven consecutive days. The average weight gains in the post-administration
were: in garlic, ginger, mixture (males), mixture (females) and control were 27.0g,-36.2g, 6.0g, 38.8g and 78.8g respectively.
There was a significant reduction in packed…
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ABSTRACT
Conditions with refractory anaemia require continuous blood transfusion as the
cornerstone of treatment to lessen symptoms and improve quality of life. However, longterm
red blood cell transfusion therapy results in accumulation of iron in tissues. Serum
ferritin is significantly correlated with the body iron store, therefore, periodic evaluation
of ferritin in a transfusion-dependent patient is necessary. Hyperferritinaemia predicts
end-organ involvement causing morbidity and mortality. These consequences could be
prevented by iron chelation therapy.
Aim: The aim of this study…
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ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of inexplicable thrombotic events with unrecognised mechanism
in the recent times warranted the investigation of otherwise-uncommon risk factors for
thromboembolic phenomena. It is a common cause of inherited thrombophilia associated with
venous thromboembolism (VTE), recurrent pregnancy loss, infertility, contraceptive or
hormone replacement related coagulopathy, and cerebral palsy. This study therefore aimed at
exploring the of factor V –Leiden (FVL) gene mutation among the natural population
of Maiduguri.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study which was…
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ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of inexplicable thrombotic events with unrecognised mechanism
in the recent times warranted the investigation of otherwise-uncommon risk factors for
thromboembolic phenomena. It is a common cause of inherited thrombophilia associated with
venous thromboembolism (VTE), recurrent pregnancy loss, infertility, contraceptive or
hormone replacement related coagulopathy, and cerebral palsy. This study therefore aimed at
exploring the of factor V –Leiden (FVL) gene mutation among the natural population
of Maiduguri.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study which was…
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Summary
The current standard blood processing practice is to split blood into its various components usually done by a process such as aphaeresis or whole blood donation involving centrifugation and filtration. This paper review the elements that should be considered when choosing a method and which components to produce based on the risks and benefits to the blood system operation, the donor and the recipient. Specific haemotherapy is safer than the use of whole blood. Overall, considering efficacy and economy,…
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ABSTRACT

Background: Hepatotropic virus infection, such as Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is altering
the gains of highly active Antiretroviral therapy HAART; and rapidly increasing non-AIDSrelated
mortality in people living with HIV disease.
Aim: This warranted the investigation of some biochemical indices in a Cohort of 94 HIV
Seropositive Subjects, out of which 11 were co-infected with HCV. Controls consisted of 80
subjects Seronegative for HIV and HCV antibodies.
Method: We analysed Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline READ MORE Download Staff Profile


ABSTRACT
lterations in fibrinogen levels of patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) in Maiduguri was Astudied. However, the dimension of this observation in Maiduguri has not been formerly
established. Fifty clinically diagnosed and laboratory confirmed CLD patients attending
the UMTH had their plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC) estimated by automation. Apparently,
fifty healthy individuals who are HIV, HBsAg and HCV negative were included as a control and
undergo the same test. Among the CLD patients, 20-29 years' age group have a…
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Abstract
Individuals donate blood for altruistic reasons or to
their patients which are either their relatives or
friends. Donation may be whole or part of blood by
apheresis donation. The knowledge of the benefit or
side effects of blood donation is paramount to blood
donors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the
possible benefit or side effects on blood donors
through haemorheological indices. Blood sample of
116 apparently healthy, non-smoking, non-alcoholic,
HIV 1 and 2, HCV, HBsAg and…
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Abstract
Serological ABO and Rhesus blood groupings could be used to predict the possible ABO and Rhesus blood group genotype. In this study, ABO and Rhesus blood group genotypes of given six subjects were predicted and employed to establish possible family ties between them. Based on their ABO and Rhesus phenotype, five of the family members indicated a possible family lineage. The last child showed an ABO blood group that might not be a product from the apparent parents. As…
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ABSTRACT
;/ descript ive cross -, section analysis 0/ five hundred patients who were
symptomatically diagnosed of malaria in three locations: Saki (peri-urban), Ibadan
(urban) and Lagos (highly urbanized) were recruited /01' this study using a well
structured questionnaire between September 2005 and June 2006. The prevalence
0/ both malaria and HIV infections were higher in Peri-Urban town than the other
two locations. We observed that 80% were HIV positive in Saki. 20% in Ibadan
and 37. J % in…
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ABSTRACT
Sixty HbSS sickle cell anaemic patients aged 17.45 ±10.1years (Female=30, Male=30) and sixty HbSC sickle cell disease patients aged 20.6±11.0years(Female=30,Male=30) were recruited for the investigation. Haemoglobin genotype of each of the patient was determined by electrophoresis. HepatitisB‘s’ antigen, HBeAg,anti-HBe, and anti-HCV in patients’ plasma were determined by Enzyme Immunoassay.
The frequencies of HBsAg, anti-HBe, HBeAg +HBsAg, HBsAg + antiHBe, in HbSS(6.7% , 20%,13.3%, and 20% respectively) were higher than those of HbSC( 5% ,8.3%, 5% , and 3.3% respectively).…
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Abstract
Blood group status appears to be associated with susceptibility to infections. Sixty two Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Seropositive patients (32 females and 30 males) aged 1-61 years and two hundred (120 females and 80 males) aged l-70years were recruited into the study as test and control participants. HIV screening and confirmatory tests were carried out on each of the participants. The AB.O and Rhesus blood grouping was carried out by standard tube and tile technique.The patterns of the frequency…
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Abstract
Thirty Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome (111V infection/AIDS)
Seropositive patients aged 27.53 ± 15.4years (Female -16: male -14) Iliat presented with the clinical signs and symptoms of the disease and fifty HIV /AIDS seronegative subjects aged 27.62 ± 21.4years (female-25: Male-25) were recruited into the study as test and normal control subjects respectively. Human immunodeficiency virus tests were carried out on each of the subjects in the two subject groups. Analysis of total serum cholesterol, iron (Fe], and albumin were carried…
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Abstract
Fifty HIV disease/AIDS seronegative subjects aged 23.6 ± 16.5years (female=25: male =25) were
recruited as normal control subjects. Thirty HIV disease/AIDS seropositive patients that presented with
the symptoms of AIDS especially, aged 19.2 ± 10.7years (female: 15 aged 22.0 ± 12.1 years: males = 15
aged 20.6 ± 11.3years) were used as test subjects. Serum total calcium, magnesium and zinc were
analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and HIV tests were carried out on each of the
subjects. There was…
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Abstract
Human immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) seronegative pulmonary
tuberculosis (PTB) patients (n=30; 15 females and 15 males) Aged 20 – 61 years; HIV/AIDS seropositve.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis free subject (n= 30: 18 females and 13 males) aged 17 – 42 years and 50 HIV/AIDS
seronegative mycobacterium tuberculosis free subjects (25 females and 25 males) aged 2 – 70 years were used as the
tests and the normal control. HIV/AIDS screening/ tests were carried out on all the subject groups.…
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Most Radio Communication networks located in coastal areas are potentially prone to anomalous propagation as radio signals very often experience outages and distortions, thereby causing some grave consequences on their dependant network supports. This is partly attributed to ducting phenomenon – a worst case of anomalous propagation in radio communications. In this work, AREPS is employed to characterize the tropospheric condition of Abidjan troposphere over which radio signals propagate. The results showed that in Abidjan, the altitude where pronounced ducting…
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Cellular radio transmissions over radio channels are subject to error bursts owing to the presence of deep fades resulting in the distortion, degradation of service quality and outages of cellular radio signals thereby limiting cellular network capacity, bandwidth requirements, and spectral efficiency. Simulation was carried out with randomly generated and uniformly distributed data in the range [0, M-1]. An Adaptive Modulation Scheme with receiver algorithm technique were employed for the estimation of channel variations which automatically selects the modulation levels…
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Electoral processes in Nigeria have, over the years been attended with numerous setbacks particularly in the conduct, coverage, computation and compilation of results as well as the considerable time-lag of results release which are altogether muffling the growth of our nascent democracy. This paper therefore proposed broadband deployment as a veritable tool to cater for easier collation of election results, fast transmission to designated and remote polling stations and quicker release of the final and acceptable results. It is believe…
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Big Data and analytics are becoming a new technology focus both in science and in industry, thereby motivate technology shift to data centric architecture and operational models. While the quantum of large datasets is significantly rising, big data growth has brought about many challenging issues demanding remediation. This paper discusses the trends of big data and its applications in various disciplines, methods of analysis, benefits and its security challenge. For each component, detailed overviews of relevance and its applications were…
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Meteorological forecasting is an ever-challenging area of investigation for scientists. Multipath fading is considered to arise from irregularities of the atmospheric refractive index, called radio ducts. By these irregularities, radio waves propagations over this medium are adversely impaired. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network is developed for the purposes of modelling meteorological conditions of Abuja – Federal Capital Territory. The work uses meteorological parameters like temperature, pressure and relative humidity for the purpose of predicting duct presence in Abuja over…
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Abstract
Thirty anaemic pregnant women aged 29.5± 6.5 years with baseline mean packed cell volume (PCV) of 20.8 ± 2.0% were studied. Freshly prepared Ugu (pumpkin-Telfaira occidentalis) mixture containing ugu (pumpkin) fluid, raw content of egg and peak evaporated unsweetened milk was administered orally to each of the pregnant women three times in a day for seven days. Packed cell volume was carried out by capillary tube method. There was an observed significantly mean value of PCV (29.5 ± 2.2%…
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Abstract: Obesity is the result of interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Polymorphisms in various genes
controlling appetite and metabolism predispose to obesity when sufficient calories are present. It is not known whether
polymorphisms in FXR gene are associated with high lipid level among obese individuals. This study was designed to
investigate and compare the lipid profile and polymorphism of the FXR gene in obese individuals, overweight and
normal weight individuals. We investigated 35 obese subjects, 35 overweight subjects and…
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Abstract: Water melon juice contain potent antioxidants such as lycopene in addition to other health promoting bioactive
phytochemicals. Overdoses of the analgesic and antipyretic acetaminophen extra represent one of the most common
pharmaceutical product poisonings worldwide today. This work was designed to evaluate the effect of watermelon juice
in rabbits overdosed with acetaminophen extra using Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL and LDL. Thirty rabbits
classified into 6 groups labeled A-F (with C1, C2, E1 and E2) with A as control were…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Watermelon juice has many non- scientific health beneficial claims due to its bioactive chemical constituents. Acetaminophen Extra contains paracetamol (500mg) and caffeine(65mg) used to relieve pain. Aim and Objective: This work was designed to evaluate the effect of watermelon juice in rabbits overdosed with acetaminophen extra using plasma zinc, potassium, chloride and sodium. Materials and Method: Thirty rabbits classified into six experimental groups labeled A-F (with C1, C2, E1 and E2) with A as control were investigated. An…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Solanecio biafrae (Wòròwó) contains phytochemicals, specifically antioxidants such as vitamins with effective health benefits as it is evidenced in the use of the vegetable in traditional treatments. Acetaminophen is an anagelsic which people used irrationally that could lead to drug abuse and inflammation of the liver in overdoses or prolong administration, notwithstanding the normal therapeutic dose is safe. Materials and Methods: Fifteen rabbits of the same sex (male) with weight ranging from 1.0 -1.4 Kg were classified into…
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Abstract Background: Anthropometric indices, plasma albumin, uric acid and packed Cell Volume(PCV) are good markers of malnutrition and the associated disorders. Aim and Objective: This work aimed to evaluate the anthropometric indices, plasma albumin, uric acid and packed cell volume in tertiary institution students. Materials and Methods : Anthropometric indices, plasma albumin, uric acid and packed cell volume (PCV) were evaluated in 200 students of two tertiary institutions in Owo-Nigeria which include Achievers University and Rufus Giwa polytechnic, Owo, Ondo…
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Abstract Anthropometric indices and lipid profiles are useful markers of malnutrition and could reveal risk of cardiovascular disease. This work aimed at evaluating the anthropometric indices and lipid profiles in students of tertiary institutions. Anthropometric indices and lipid profiles were evaluated in 200 students of students of tertiary institutions including Achievers University and Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Nigeria, aged 18 -46 years, comprising 95 males and 105 females recruited for this study. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, and waist and…
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Abstract: Hepatitis B and C viruses cause viral hepatitis which could affect the function of the liver. Viral hepatitis is
one of the major killer diseases associated with malaise but could be prevented. This work was designed to investigate
the frequency of HBsAg, and anti-HCV including their effects on some biochemical parameters among University
Students presenting with malaise. Fifty malaise University students were recruited through their Health Centre. The
students were screened for anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HBsAg Immunochemical by ELIZA…
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Background:
Objectives
Method:
Results:
Conclusion:
Synergistic association between Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and
pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) infection has resulted in variable haematological manifestations
including coagulopathies; these accelerated the morbidity and mortality burden of HIV/PTB coinfection.
: Based on this preposition, we prospectively evaluated some coagulation biomarkers
in a case-controlled study of 102 HIV sero-positive subjects consistent withWHOclinical stages I
and II, 56 HIV/PTB co-infected subjects; both groups were therapy naive. Also 104 HIV seronegative
healthy blood donorswere recruited as control…
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ABSTRACT
Lassa fever caused by lassa virus is anhaemorragic infectious disease with limited access to
diagnostic facilities in Nigeria. Lassa virus infections can only be diagnosed definitively in the
laboratory using the following tests: reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assaygold
standard, antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antigen detection tests and
virus isolation by cell culture. Cases of this infectious disease have been reported in 24 of the 36
States in Nigeria. Currently, two national laboratories are supporting the laboratory…
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After almost two decades of militarisation and military action as well as protests, violence and armed resistance in which civil society, communities and militants played vanguard roles, the Niger Delta entered a new historical period as of October 2009.  Based on the Federal Government's promise to address problems of the Niger Delta as part of a seven-point agenda, militants in the region accepted a federal amnesty, pursuing disarmament and a cessation of hostilities.  With the aid of secondary data, this…
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An assessment of phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the bark extracts of Kigelia africana, was extracted using hot and cold ...


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This study investigated innovations and technological capability on customer patronage of selected communication firm in Nigeria. The population of the study was 21,600 staff of Mtn in Nigeria. The sample size 243 was obtained using the Freund and Williams sample size determinant of which questionnaire and oral interview was used for the data gathering. A test and re-test was used and thereafter the Crombach alpha correlation coefficient was applied to find the relation between the variables. The finding…
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This paper examine on the Nigeria Federalism: Health and poverty with respect to the changes occurring in the environment and how they have affected the development of the nation. The paper will attempt to define Nigeria Federalism, examine the major types of health problems in Nigeria, and evaluate the unemployment arising from discrimination, erosion, pollution, and national factors that can caused poverty in Nigeria and to strategies ways of pursuing these health and poverty problems in Nigeria. However,…
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The microflora of a soil near microbiology laboratory at the University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria was analyzed in this study. Total bacterial count and total fungal count of the soil samples were determined using standard spread plate technique. Six soil samples were collected with interval of two weeks between two samples. Identification of the isolates was done using their colonial, morphological, and biochemical characteristics and established procedures were followed. The total bacterial counts ranged from 1.4 x 108…
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Insecurity is a major problem in developing and transition countries.  In Nigeria for example, the activities of the Boko Haram terrorist group have resulted in the destruction of lives and properties.  In April 2015, about 276 female students of Government Secondary School in the town of Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria were abducted by terrorists.  In spite of the efforts of the Nigeria Government and foreign partners to rescue the victims and prevent future occurrences another group of…
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Electoral politics in Nigeria is often characterized by ethnicity, fraud and violence.  That is why some scholars have described elections in Nigeria as warfare.   Since the colonial period, electoral politics has been characterized by ethnic sentiments and corruption.  Obnoxious acts such as indiscriminate use of money by powerful and influential members of the elite class, popularly called “political godfathers” is also a feature of electoral politics in Nigeria.  This situation makes elected political office holders accountable to the…
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Africa has been in turmoil for many decades.  this situation has been worse since the end of the cold war.  the effect of crisis in Africa is felt by all especially women and children.  Ipso facto, this paper examines the role of communication in understanding and ameliorating the condition of women and children in conflict situations.  Using the Iceberg Model of Conflict Dynamics as the theoretical framework, the author espoused the view that all the effects of conflict…
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This paper examine on the environmental content in federalism agenda with respect to the changes occurring in the environment and how they have affected the development of the nation. The paper will attempt to define Federalism, examine the causes of environmental issues in Nigeria, and evaluate the components and functions of the Federal environmental protection and to strategies ways of pursuing these environmental problems. A lot of changes in the environment are caused either naturally or by man…
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Abstract
is a proinflammatory cytokine which acts to worsen disease while IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory
cytokine, which acts to improve healing. Plasmodium falciparum co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
could generate both innate and acquired immunity involving inflammatory responses. This work was
designed to determine plasma level of TNF-Alpha and IL-10 in plasmodium co-infection with
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The test subjects recruited for this study were M. tuberculosis mono-infected
patients (30), Plasmodium falciparum mono-infected patients (50) and M. tuberculosis and plasmodium coinfected
patients…
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Agricultural production in many emerging economies suffer losses owing to the challenges posed by weeds. Owing to cost, ecological, environmental and other human health safety issues regarding the use and application of chemicals as a control option against invasive weeds, there has been a renewed focus to explore alternative and safer methods such as biotechnology. In this study, we explored the use of some beneficial rhizobacteria as a possible alternative to chemicals. The impact of the newly characterized…
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Rhamnolipid (Rh) is a biosurfactant produced by the
bacterial Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This present study investigates
rhizospheric strain C1501 of P. aeruginosa with an accession
number KF976394 with the best production of
rhamnolipid: a biosurfactant. The partially purified rhamnolipid
from strain C1501 and Tween 80 was tested on mycelial
growth of wild strain C1136. The enzyme activities involved
in biodegradation, as well as necrosis induction on the tested
weeds, were performed using scanning electron microscopy. It
was observed that the different…
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Feather wastes represent potential alternative ingredients for animal feedstuffs which can ameliorate the protein shortage for food and feed. Previous attempts to provide information about the nutrient composition of feather meal are either too complicated for rural livestock farmers in developing countries or they provided incomplete information on chemical composition. Washed feathers were subjected to different processing techniques such as pre-soaking in distilled water, wood ash, 0.3M NaOH, a mixture of wood ash and 0.3M NaOH, incubated at…
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Abstract
Aim: To present a concept analysis of client empowerment from the perspective of Community Health Nursing.
Background: The concept of empowerment is broad and is often seen as a way of giving more to the powerless in
many facets of life. However, less emphasis has been placed on empowerment of client seeking health care in general
and in particular those seeking it at the primary level. Hence, this concept paper analysed client empowerment in
community health nursing as most…
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Abstract
Background: HIV stigma contributes to the ongoing HIV epidemic especially in sub-Sahara Africa, where new
infection rate is highest and the number of HIV-infected persons who commenced treatment is low. HIV stigma exists
in community and social institutions including health institution. Most student nurses who enter into health-training
institutions are members of the society and might exhibit stigma towards HIV-infected persons which could be due to
poor knowledge about HIV. This study investigated the HIV stigma mechanism of student…
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Abstract Study Background: Moringa oleifera, (miracle tree), has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases. Moringa has been
the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there have been scanty information
on its sub-acute effect on the kidneys.
Aims: This work was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the heart
and kidneys of adult Wistar rats.
Settings and Design: Twenty-eight adult healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into
4…
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This experiment was carried out using potted plants to assess the effect of keratin-based organic fertilizer produced from microbially hydrolysed feathers on cowpea’s. The fungus isolated and used for the hydrolysis of feather during the production of organic fertilizer was identified as Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the organic fertilizer was very effective on plants with soils amended with the hydrolysed feathers, as the plants exhibited better yields and productivity. Data for plant height (cm), weight of…
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This experiment was carried out using potted plants to assess the effect of keratin-based organic fertilizer produced from microbially hydrolysed feathers on cowpea’s. The fungus isolated and used for the hydrolysis of feather during the production of organic fertilizer was identified as Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the organic fertilizer was very effective on plants with soils amended with the hydrolysed feathers, as the plants exhibited better yields and productivity. Data for plant height (cm), weight of…
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A study was conducted to dry chicken eggs in order to determine the effect of drying
temperatures on the proximate composition and sensory attributes of dried eggs. The albumen, yolk and whole egg were dried separately at temperatures of 50, 55 and 60oC. The drying time for the samples ranged from 7hrs20mins to 13hrs50mins. The protein and fat contents of the dried whole egg at the drying temperatures ranged from 47.52 - 50.90% and 35.12 - 35.88%; for…
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This study was based on the isolation of therrmophiic bacteria from automobile radiators. Water sample from three different automobile radiators...


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This work investigated the effect of variably formulated pesta granules containing wild and UV mutated Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae on the rate of CO2 evolution, organic carbon content, enzymatic activity (acidic and alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenases, urease and protease) and representative soil microorganisms in the soils using different assay techniques. After the 35th day period of experiment, the pesta granule formulation BH4 showed the best evolution of CO2 (824 ± 6.2 mg CO2 kg1 soil hr1) as against…
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Different fungal isolates were screened for the production of mannanase under solid state cultivation at static condition. Penicillium italicum LAD-A5 was selected as the most potent in producing enzyme of high activity. It was therefore selected for further studies. The nutritional requirements of Penicillium italicum LAD-A5 for the production of mannanase in solid state fermentation were investigated. The process parameters optimized include; carbon and nitrogen sources, inoculum concentrations, percentage moisture content and sugar supplementation. Utilization of different agrowastes…
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Recommended cassava roots’ storage methods of trench and moist sawdust were investigated for their effects on moisture contents and microbial quality of cassava roots under cooling sheds. The storage methods’ shed temperatures and relative humidity were respectively similar and steady at about 24°C temperature and about 80% relative humidity. Moisture contents of the freshly harvested ‘Bitter’ and “Sweet” cassava roots were 57.7% and 59.9% respectively. The freshly harvested roots were uninfected, but showed various bacteria and fungi growths…
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Biodegradable edible coatings from Moringa oil(MO) and Neem oil (NO) was applied to carrot fruits in order to provide environmentally friendly, healthy treatments (with which to better preserve fresh fruit quality) and safety during postharvest storage at ambient temperature of 27± 3oC and relative humidity of 50-60% . Physical properties like weight loss and texture were determined throughout the storage period of 6 weeks. The coatings had a significant effect on the development of quality variables.The overall results…
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The focus of every organization is goal achievement which consequently yields to maximization of shareholders' wealth. Sometimes, the goal achievement becomes a
challenge to attain due to incompetency of the leaders/managers who do not realize the importance of career development or on the job training coupled with little or no
support from the management. This paper therefore investigated the impact of learning goal orientation (LGO) on leadership competence (LC) in an organization. Secondary source played the role of…
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In recent time, economic globalization and market integration have orchestrated profound changes in the world’s business order, bringing with it new challenges and opportunities. Banks cannot compete in this new environment unless it becomes more innovative and proactively responds more actively to consumers’ needs and preferences products development Central Bank of Ireland (CBI, 2013-2015). In the 1960s, the only task banks had to perform to remain competitive in the market was raising productivity. At present, the market dynamics…
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Family businesses constitute a large number of commercial activities worldwide, contributing significantly to the global economy. Succession is a key issue influencing the sustainability of family businesses. Studies indicated that approximately 50% of family businesses do not have adequate succession planning. There are many family business failures in Nigeria, especially at the demise of the owner/founder. The main objective of this study is to find out the factors that are responsible for the failure to effectively plan for…
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The study is set out to determine the extent of relationship between interactive Tmarketing practice and business performance of agro-allied firms in Rivers State, using sales growth as a yardstick for measuring performance. The cross – sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Ten (10) out of 416 agro-allied firms registered with the ministry of commerce and industry (Rivers State Yellow Pages Directory, 2013 – 2014) with population of 400 management staff were randomly selected, while Taro…
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The issue that confronts the management development institutions in Nigeria are multi-dimensional as a result of stiff competition that has characterized the sector. The aim of this study is to explore the nexus between institutional strategies and level of patronage of management development institutions (MDIs) in Nigeria. As competition is becoming more severe and alternatives are being introduced rapidly, institutions struggle for the right of market share and to gain competitive advantage over their rivals. In line with…
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One of the most valuable assets of any organization in this era of competitiveness is her brand. Brand has a lot to say of any organization either in a positive or negative
perspective, it enhances sales or image if positively perceived or de enhances same if negatively perceived. This study surveyed the relationship between branding and consumer buying behavior of fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) in Lagos Nigeria. The study adopted survey and descriptive research design. 100 respondents…
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The aim of this study is to explore the effect of the role of organizational factors on intrapreneurship development. In line with this, the study theoretically explore the nature of intrapreneurship dimension, and how organizational factors can influence intrapreneurship development. this study will help practitioners and managers to have a better understanding of the role of organizational factors in intrapreneurship development.


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Strategic intrapreneurship is an emerging concept and to a large extent can be adopted as a determinant of business development in Nigerian Commercial Banks. It is a concept with a high attraction due to its beneficial effect on revitalization and performance of firms. However, the concept has recorded high failure rate and the global picture of the relative contribution of intrapreneurship (cooperate entrepreneurship) has not been documented or subjected to any rigorous research efforts in literature, especially in…
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The focus of this paper is to analyze Organizational Change Management as a strategic approach to organizational effectiveness. And the main objective is to determine the strategic change approaches that may influence organizational effectiveness. The authors deem it fit to employ an exploratory research approach in this study. The method intends to rely heavily on secondary data as well as some factual documents. Thus, some literatures and documents relevant to the problem under study were exhaustively reviewed in…
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The study focus on the relationship between intrapreneurship practice and value creation in six selected commercial banks in Nigeriato i: examine the level of intrapreneurship practice in Nigeria banks; ii: determine the relationship between intrapreneurship practice and value creation in the commercial banks; The study utilized descriptive survey design. The Cochran formula was used to arrive at a sample size of 549 being heads of strategic units and the staff of the various units. The result reveals that…
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