All OER Journal Articles


Compared to other components of the Cyberspace, Cybersecurity is emerging the most prominent domain of concern. The reason may not be unconnected with the geometric growth in in the evolution of new computer-based technologies by the day and the deployment of such technologies for both positive and negative purposes. There are four major areas where Cybersecurity programmes are massively ongoing: Technology Products, Research, Education, and Business enterprises. These four areas are unarguably very vital and affect the socioeconomic development of…
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Analysis of images acquired from X-ray cargo scanning sites at the ports of discharge of consignments is central to modern risk management operations on imports. Often times the images (in their raw format) must be relayed to remote locations for analysis and risk profiling and this may constitute a heinous task owing to the unique format and signature of such multimedia documents as well as type of storage media attached directly to the high capacity X-ray cargo scanners. This paper…
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This paper is an attempt to analyze Nigeria‘s principal cybercrime legislation from social, technical and legal perspectives in a bid to highlight some perceived gaps, which may hamper the expected goals of the law. An exploratory narrative-textual case study approach is adopted in this paper and emphasis is made on some grey areas identified in the law. The points discussed include the concept of critical national infrastructure vis-à-vis critical infrastructure, and the responsibilities of some vital agencies and ministries. A…
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Poultry business is one of the popular and fast-growing Agro
businesses in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the practice of proper
poultry waste management has often been neglected. This study
focuses on the need to contain environmental pollution arising
from such poultry wastes. The study adopted a cross sectional
survey wherein 36 poultry farmers were randomly selected from
the three local government areas that make up Etsako district of
Edo State Nigeria. Following the distribution of thirty-six
validated questionnaires, thirty-three were completed and READ MORE Download Staff Profile


One of the most debated issues surrounding wireless connectivity is performance especially under dierent topographic and climatic scenarios.
Performance has a direct relationship with throughput measured in terms of how well a given wireless connectivity provides consistent services
over a given period compared to the wired alternative. Research has shown that wireless connectivity is constrained by significant physical
components such as topography, weather conditions, propagation frequency, and distance. It is commonplace to see notable vendors of wireless
network products make…
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Web-based and other electronic voting platforms are growing as
some countries have considered them viable in ensuring
transparency and accountability during elections. One of the most
cited challenges that hinders widespread adoption borders on
cybersecurity. In modern times, attackers and cyber criminals
have developed automated tools that could exploit seemingly
secured data intensive applications within few minutes resulting
to data breaches and losses. Data injection attacks (DIA) are
prevalent on web applications and software engineers are
combatting the trend using…
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Software development is a core component in the academic training curriculum in various computing disciplines in universities, colleges, polytechnics, and vocational institutes respectively. In many of the said academic curricula there is often a superficial treatment of vital project management elements such as scheduling, costing, risk and quality management, and basic legal concepts of contracts. Every software developer/engineer is expected to have basic knowledge of the said elements which go a long way to boosting his/her professionalism during contract negotiations…
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One of the major problems in developing countries is dearth of sufficient
energy, which in turn hampers sustainable development. Anatase is one of the
prominent polymorph of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) with great potential for solar
application except for its wide band gap which limits its solar energy utilization to
about 4%. It has fascinated much devotion from researchers owing to its extensive
array of applications coupled with its availability and cost effectiveness. Doping
has been presented as a means to…
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Interference if not properly attended to could have negative influence on
the air interface performance of any wireless network service. Hence, there is a
need to moderate interference in cellular network system. This study is aimed at
analysing the performance of decoding-based successive interference cancellation
technique. The was done analysing the performance of decoding based successive
interference cancellation on uplink High Speed Uplink Packet Access Enhanced
Dedicated Physical Data Channel. From the analysis, simulations and results
obtained from this study,…
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Presently, there has been several scientific debates among climate researchers and environmental engineers
regarding the main source of global warming which invariably result to climate change. The obvious argument that the
core source of global warming is not just CO2 heat retention and other greenhouse gases, but particulate pollution that
absorbs radiation, heats the troposphere and decreases the effectiveness of atmospheric-convective heat exclusion from the
surface of the earth. However, research has continued in a bid to unravel this phenomenon…
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Pesticides is very important for the prevention, mitigation, destruction of pests and
diseases for the improvement of agricultural efficiency due to their contributions to
agricultural yields and improving the standard of living. Considering the dynamicity and
influence of weather in our everyday lives, it is obvious that the effects of pesticides might
also be a contributing factor and vice versa. Climate change could have an influence on both
pesticides’ usage, as well as the losses of pesticides to the environment.…
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The ever-increasing advancement in computing and information technology evidenced by the deployment of super computers and gigantic data centres across the globe had been documented as potential sources of environmental pollution, degradation and key contributing factor to the climate change problem. The inherent aspiration of organizations to maintain competitive advantage over peers is a major driving force that apparently blurs the thinking of world‘s multinational chief executives in respect of the impending dangers that may arise from the ever-growing large-scale…
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In the last decade, communication through traditional broadcast media has been severely influenced by the growing sophistication in information communication technologies. It is little wonder how mobile smart devices are rapidly emasculating the socioeconomic landscape of traditional broadcasting. In the work place, home, and leisure the trend is same. Social media has stolen the game and is quickly leading to another age, the “machine relationship” age where the usual intimate social relationships are replaced by mobile devices and social networks.…
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Meteorological variables are crucial constituents in the estimation
of refractivity disseminations and the uncharacteristic radio wave
propagation situations of the troposphere as a result of their impact on radio
wave communication relations over the atmosphere. In this study
the measurement and assessment of air temperature, relative humidity and
atmospheric pressure was carried out for a period of one year; 2018,
so as to estimate the refractivity gradient over Iyamho-Auchi, Edo State,
Nigeria using a self-implemented inexpensive portable meteorological
monitoring device.…
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Data centres are important facilities in modernization of cement production industries across the world. In the last two decades, Nigeria has witnessed an amazing cement manufacturing and production reforms. Consequent upon these reforms is a marked reduction in the importation of bagged cement from other countries thereby reducing capital flights and boosting the gross domestic product. A typical cement plant in Nigeria produces an average of 6000 metric tonnes of bagged cement per day. Of vital importance to the instrumentation…
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In 2019, elections in Nigeria gulped a whopping 234.5 billion Naira as against the 108.5 billion Naira approved for the nation’s electoral body in 2015. Growth in population of registrable voters and number of parties were cited as the cause of increased funding. Internet voting have been proposed and used in some countries. Transparency, efficiency and effectiveness had been documented as grounds for i-voting. In the same vein, there has been several arguments against the adoption of i-voting. The Increasing…
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As in other socioeconomic spheres, social networks and media are veritable tools for education as they provide easy channels
for information and knowledge exchange and their trendy nature make them very attractive and portable among the young
and old. However, these applications are fraught with security challenges ranging from surveillance to invasion of privacy
and unwarranted tampering with user data regardless of the seemingly impressive underlying rights of users as claimed by
the vendors as to user accounts. Various vulnerabilities…
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In recent years, progressively data proprietors have embraced cloud storage service, by which they will subcontract their data to the cloud server to significantly reduce the local storage overhead, due to the rapid growth in the cloud computing market and development. Cloud computing is the delivery of hosting services that are provided to clients over the web. It is quite common, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services)…
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A comparative analysis between Rebound
Hammer and Pullout method in testing concrete was conducted
in this study. Experimental analysis was carried out to
compare the correctness between the two testing method in
estimating the strength of concrete. Different cube (cubes of
175 x 175 x 175) samples were prepared using two mix designs
of 1:2:4 and 1:3:6 with a constant w/c ratio of 0.45 and were
tested at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The rebound hammer readings
had…
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Prior to the year 2001, the phenomenon of Internet criminal fraud was not globally associated with Nigeria. Since then, however, the country had acquired a world-wide notoriety in criminal activities, especially financial scams, facilitated through the use of the Internet. This is not to say that computer-related crimes were alien to the country. It is, however, remarkable that the perpetration of cyber crimes involving Nigerians and traceable to Nigeria became so rampant that questions might be legitimately raised as to…
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According to a report titled “cyberwarfare in the c-suite” released on January 21 2021 by Steve Morgan of the cybercrime magazine, cybercrime is projected to unleash global damages to the tune of six(6) trillion United States Dollars in 2021thereby becoming the third largest economy in the world as well as the greatest problem humanity has ever had to contend with. As virulent and damaging as it is, cybercrime is also the most complicated globalized crime of the 21st century. The…
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Litigation is often very expensive and time consuming. Land cases can be in court sometimes for over ten years. Commerce cannot absorb such delay; speed and efficacy are becoming the criteria by which success in commercial litigation most especially debt recovery is to be judged, as legal practice is forced to match the ever increasing vigor of the market place. Many debtors are known to dissipate their assets both movable and immovable when they are threatened with litigations, so that…
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No doubt, the role of planning in the development of a nation like Nigeria cannot be overemphasized.  Nigeria had made several attempts at enacting Urban and Regional Planning laws hereinafter referred to as ‘Planning Laws’.  But the long awaited planning law i.e. the Nigerian Urban and Regional Planning Decree No.88 of 1992 now called the Nigerian Urban and Regional Planning Act CAP N138, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 2004 was finally enacted into law, in 1999.  This Act was…
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It is an established fact that security of the Nigerian oil infrastructure is one of the biggest challenges faced by the Federal government. This has led to stealing of crude oil and the reduction of revenue that ought to accrue to the Federal Government. The Nigerian Government has adopted several measures aimed at curbing the menace of crude oil theft to no avail. Crude oil theft has remained unabated. The aim of this paper is to examine one of the…
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Several laws have been enacted by the Federal and State Governments in Nigeria with a view to enhancing environmental protection and sustainable development.  Implementation and enforcement of these laws by the relevant government agencies have been lacking.  This has resulted in huge environmental problems in the country, such as flooding, oil spillage, deforestation, spread of diseases etc., therefore there is the need to strengthen the citizen’s right to enforcement of environmental protection rights. Environmental litigation is therefore, a means by…
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Availability, affordability and distribution of energy sources are necessities for sustainable national development. Nigeria is the 13th world’s largest producer of crude oil, yet it is unable to attain energy, environmental, social and economic security due to the adverse impact of crude oil theft. Despite the enactment of several laws to combat oil theft in Nigeria such as the Petroleum Production and Distribution (Anti-Sabotage) Act, the Petroleum Act, the Criminal Code Act, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (Establishment) Act,…
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Biogas unlike fossil fuel is a renewable energy source. It is environmentally friendly and can be generated in every part of Nigeria where people live. Wastes are common in Nigeria as the populace generate wastes everyday which sometimes poses challenges to government and the people themselves. Biogas technology is available in Nigeria. Yet Nigeria is unable to tap the full potentials of the availability of this resource. This is due to many factors. However, for a sustainable renewable energy technology…
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The concept of shares is one of the distinguishing features of corporate entities. More distinguishing is the array of men and women who subscribe to corporate entities or incorporated companies through acquisition of the issued shares of such companies. The prime place of shares as a means of providing or shoring up capital for companies makes it imperative that specific rights be attached to them. It is against this background and from a comparative perspective that this paper examines the…
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The bending solutions of rectangular thick plate
with all four edges clamped (CCCC) were investigated in this
study. The basic governing equations used for analysis are
based on third-order shear deformation plate theory analysis
under uniformly distributed load. Using a formulated total
potential energy equation, the three coupled general governing
differential equations for the determination of the out of plane
displacement and shear deformations rotation along the
direction of x and y coordinates were obtained. These
equations as obtained…
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This paper studied the bending analysis of an isotropic rectangular plate for the effects of
aspect ratio, shear and deflection on the critical lateral load of the plates using the
polynomial shear deformation theory (PSDT). One of the plate is clamped at opposite edge
clamped and the other opposite edge simply supported (CSCS). The other of the plate is
simply supported at the first and fourth edge, clamped at second edge and free of support
at…
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Macrosegregation phenomenon regardless of casting size often induces high partition coefficient (k) impacting
adversely the thermal and electrical properties of cast binary alloy. In this study, an experimental investigation of macrosegregation
propagation in aluminum-copper alloy solidification is reported. Al6wt. % Cu was produced at varied pouring heights including
100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm and 500 mm. The combinations of optical, scanning electron and energy dispersive
spectrometry were used to evaluate the extent of segregation in the…
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Legitimacy under family law revolves around the status of a child born into a family or to parents validly married under statutory or customary law in Nigeria . The word legitimacy is the act of being lawful or valid; however, note that legitimacy is the process whereby a child who had been considered illegitimate assumes the position of legitimacy . According to the Black's Law Dictionary defined legitimacy and legitimation as a status of an individual born in by a…
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Macro-segregation is an irreversible defect in non-ferrous alloy casts. This can only be
significantly minimized by controlling the melt and its flow trajectory during casting. The study
identified runner angle inclination as a critical parameter that impacts the development, size
and volume of macro-segregation occurrence in binary alloys. The methodology entails
variation of runner angles to include 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, and 150° at a constant casting speed
of 100mm/s being the optimum casting speed established in previous study.…
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During the solidification of binary metal alloys, chemical heterogeneities at
product scale over a long distance range (1cm-1m) develop and this has detrimental
effect on the resulting mechanical properties of cast products. Macrosegregation is
of great concern to alloy manufacturers and end users as this problem persist. In
this study, the use of process parameters namely casting speed and runner angle to
reduce macro-segregation in aluminum-copper binary alloy solidification is
reported. The results from optical microscope,…
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This study theorises and investigates how law students of Edo University Iyamho perceive the newly established Amotekun security (para-military) agency by the six south-west states of Nigerian to assist the police to fight criminality. Using a sample size of 64 law students of the University, the study is anchored on Penal Technique theory the study found out the police is perceived as ineffective in the performance of their functions and that Amotekun will significantly improve security by collaborating with the…
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Machines designed to operate in marine environment are generally vulnerable to failure by corrosion. It is therefore imperative
that the corrosion susceptibility of such facilities is evaluated with a view to establishing mechanism for its mitigation. In this
study, the corrosion behaviour of as-cast and retrogression-reagion (RRA) specimens of aluminum alloy containing 0.4–2.0
percent magnesium additions in NaCl, FeCl
3, and EXCO solutions was investigated. The corrosion simulation processes involved
gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. Results show substantial inducement…
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Payment of taxes in Nigeria is a function of law, in other words, all taxes collected by Nigeria government are regulated by tax laws. It had been held in plethora of cases in Nigeria, that lawyers and judges are the custodian of the laws. They owed the general public the duty of interpreting and applying laws in its plain and ordinary meaning, and for the common good of humanity. However, it has been observed that there had been divergent interpretation…
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The availability of pure, clean and safe usable water for drinking and
other domestic use is a major challenge faced by most developing
nations' rural communities. In the pursuit to make available safe, pure
and clean usable water, a ceramic clay filter produced from clay soil
is used as an absorbent barrier in household water treatment.
To investigate the effectiveness of rate of flow through ceramic clay
filters when treated with up to 20 % rice husk, five different…
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The study investigates the impact and relevance of modern technological educational facilities/resources amidst the Covid-19 pandemic, using Edo University Iyamho undergraduate law students as a case study. We administered 65 online structured questionnaires to law students of Edo University Iyamho. We used a descriptive and analytical method for analyzing data generated from the questionnaire. The study found that Edo University Iyamho is well equipped with ICT educational facilities/resources in the training of law undergraduate students, and it has been very…
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Environmental pollution is a serious trend of natural and artificial catastrophe(s) that might cause ill health or eventual death depending on the degree of seriousness. Human activities are the major cause of environmental degradation such as reverse desertification, ozone layer depletion, global warming, volcanic eruption, earthquake, acid rain, oil spillages, and climate change. Artificial catastrophes can result in the transfer of pollutants generated from human activities that can be a negative reverse ecological pointer which can be detrimental to its…
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Agriculture is a major source of Nigerians livelihood, and it consists of mainly agricultural crops or plants and livestock. The farmers and herdsmen are the major stakeholders in Nigeria Agriculture. In 2011 it was said by Central Bank that Nigeria Agriculture had the potential to grow tremendously in 2030. Despite the above, it had been observed that there had been a series of violent clashes and conflicts between the farmers and Fulani herdsmen. The reason for the conflict is as…
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This study examines the upsurge in the virtual celebration of marriage in Nigeria during the outbreak of the Covid-19 Pandemic. During the spike of the outbreak, marriages were celebrated on social media platforms such as Webex meeting and Zoom with the parties at different places at the time of the celebration of the marriage. Despite the economical advantages that the virtual marriage celebration provides, there is a legal uncertainty that marriage so celebrated virtually is one recognized under the Matrimonial…
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The concept of human rights over time has gained popularity and recognition. It has been observed that the evolution of human rights in the present era has aroused a lot of debate and controversy as regard its justification and applicability to a human being, by virtue of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the United Nations Conference in Vienna 1993. These international treaties reconfirmed the validity of the universality of human rights, which has attracted criticizing from cultural relativist…
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The study is concerning contract of agreement in Nigeria, which had developed into an internet or electronic trade that parties to a contract do not need to have personal contact in transacting business. Despite the advantages e-contract provides, there is legal uncertainty as to whether there is a binding contract or it can be enforced in Nigeria. This is given the fact that where parties reach an agreement via the internet, and parties do not sign it, there is no…
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This study developed a higher order shear deformation theory and fourth order displacement
polynomial in the static flexure analysis of thick isotropic plate under uniformly distributed load.
Total potential energy equation of a thick plate was formulated from the constitutive relations
thereafter the three governing differential equation and boundary conditions of the theory are
obtained by the method of direct variation to the determination of the out of plane
displacement and shear deformations rotation along the direction of x…
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Sandcrete blocks are used as load and non-load bearing walls in
the construction of buildings, and structures. The variations in the
quality and quantity of its constituent materials with the methods
of curing affect the compressive strength of sandcrete blocks.
Modelling using multiple regression approach was used to
develop a compressive strength model in terms of constituent
materials for 28 days curing age of hollow sandcrete blocks made
with St Saviour fine aggregate sourced from Benin City, Edo
State,…
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Technology has necessitated and intensified changes in all spheres of human endeavors, including administering justice and ensuring human security. However, before the outbreak of the Covid-19, technological advancements have not significantly impacted the administration of justice and human security in Nigeria. The administration of justice and human security in Nigeria was manually operated with minimal or no digital input. In this regard, this study employs a doctrinal and non-doctrinal method in examining how has technology impacted on the administration of…
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The infuence of climate change on agriculture, especially as it relates to the production of food, changes with reverence to duration and space, of which most of these infuences are diverse and remarkably uncertain. Undoubtedly, the application of food innovation technology (FIT) in the agricultural processes is an important response for operative and objective adaptation and mitigation of climate change. Consequently, there is a need to urgently re-evaluate the procedures for FIT so as to address the diversities and uncertainties…
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The tort of public nuisance was designed to protect public safety. As the global trend on the outbreak of COVID-19 continues, the pandemic had its first wave between December 2019 and January 2020 in Asia, and then swept through to Europe and America, recording its second wave from February till date. The Pandemic continues to take lives and leave a lot of negative impact in countries around the world. This ranges from the interference and obstruction with the exercise and…
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Plea bargain has been globally accepted as a useful criminal prosecutorial tool in accelerating the prosecution of minor criminal cases. However, it has been observed that the introduction of a plea bargain into the Nigerian criminal justice system tends to aid the ruling class in looting from the public treasury and escaping justice. Given these legal anomalies, the study used online survey questionnaires sent to four hundred and five respondents (randomly selected) residing in Nigeria in ascertaining the Nigerian citizens…
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This study interrogates journalists’ assessment of the effectiveness of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) in Nigeria, particularly as it pertains to its implementation and successes in retrieving useful information from public institutions in Nigeria. Using the mixed research method, the article involves nine purposively selected journalists in Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria. Anchored on the social responsibility theory, the study discovers that journalists are aware of the FOIA, but it is not well implemented because of a lack of cooperation…
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This study presents the structural analysis of soil
used as a road construction material, to assess the required
properties for improved stabilization. This is done by
determining the relationship between the force and
penetration cylinder plunger of a standard cross-sectional
area which is made to penetrate at a specified rate. The
compaction of soil sample gotten from three Abuja laterite
deposits was analyzed by subjecting it to moisture content
test, atterberg limit test, dry density test, specific gravity
test,…
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Steam-air gasification of Cymbopogon citratus was carried out to produce syngas and hydrogen in two
reactors (
fluidized bed reactor and a flow entrained reactor) heated at 600e1000 C using Ni/Dolomite/
CeO
2/K2CO3 catalyst and equal/different steam to biomass ratios (SBRs). The steam-air flow rate was fixed
at 4 g/min and 40% v/v. The gasi
fication temperature in READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Hydrolysis is a chemical decomposition involving breaking of a bond and the addition of elements
of water. In this hydrolysis of ester (ethyl acetate) with an alkali (sodium hydroxide), HCl was
used as catalyst to accelerate it. 1ml and 2ml of ethyl acetate was injected separately into the
500ml reactor vessels which contains 0.05N of NaOH and thoroughly mixed. At regular time
interval, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 90 minutes, 25ml of each of the samples were withdrawn…
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The study was conducted to compare the combustion properties of briquettes
produced from sawdust and palm frond using different mixing ratios which will serve as a
substitute for kerosene and LPG. In obtaining these results, five different briquettes were
produced using locally sourced cassava starch as binder in the sawdust (s): palm frond (p)
ratios of 0:1, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1 and 1:0: A 0%S: 100%P, B 25%S: 75%P, C 50%S: 50%P, D 75%S:
25%P and E 100S:0%P. The attainment…
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The studies of the kinetic and
thermodynamic of the adsorption of malachite
green oxalate onto Periwinkle shell was carried
out. The Periwinkle shell was washed, dried and
carbonized at 400
oC. It was ground, sieved and
activated at 800
oC. 1000mg of the adsorbent was
mixed with 50ml of 50mg/l of malachite green
oxalate. Six samples were prepared and placed in
a temperature controlled water bath. It was
withdrawn at 30 minutes interval, filtered and the
concentration…
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The study of the adsorption of Malachite green oxalate from aqueous solution was carried out with
activated carbon prepared from Coconut fibre. The Coconut fibre was washed, dried, carbonized, crushed,
sieved and eventually activated at 800
oC with 0.1Mol HCl. Adsorption experiment was carried out with various
concentrations of the adsorbate at constant time, temperature, volume and dosage. It was repeated at varying
time, while other influencing factors were kept constant. Finally, the experiment was carried at varying READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Equilibrium isotherm, kinetic and
thermodynamic studies of the adsorption of erythrosine dye
onto activation carbon from coconut fire was carried out.
The coconut fibre obtain from Elele, Rivers State Nigeria,
was washed, dried, carbonized at 400
oC, crushed, sieved
and activated at 800
oC, before it was washed and dried at
110
oC. Variable influencing factors, such as contact time,
temperature and initial concentration were studied through
single-factor experiment, while other factors are kept
constant (at…
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Heat transfer coefficient is a quantitative characteristic of convective heat transfer between a fluid
medium and the surface flowed over by the fluid. While heat transfer area or surface area is the
area of the fluid through which the heat flows. 250ml of methylated spirit and 150ml of distilled
water were mixed in the flask of the rotary evaporator and the equipment was assembled and
switched on, while the temperature was set at 100
oC and the flask…
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Coconut fibre activated carbon was used for the adsorption of Congo red dye from aqueous
solution. Variable influencing factors, such as contact time, temperature and concentration
were studied through single-factor experiment, while other factors were held constant each.
The adsorption isotherms studied shows that the correlation coefficient of Freundlich gives
better fit for the adsorption. The adsorption kinetic followed pseudo-second order, the surface
area of the activated carbon was obtained as 129.26m
2/g, while the values of the…
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Snail shell samples were washed and carbonized at 400oC, ground,
sieved and activated with 0.1M HCl at 800
oC in a furnace. The
activated carbon prepared, were used as adsorbent to remove Congo red
from aqueous solution. Factors such as contact time, temperature and
initial concentration were studied through single-factor experiment,
while other factors are kept constant (at 30min, 30
oC and 50mg/L) in
each. Adsorption isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies were
carried out for…
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Adsorption efficiency, kinetic and
thermodynamic studies of the adsorption of Malachite
green oxalate onto activated carbon from snail shell was
carried out. The cleaned Snail shell was carbonized at
400
oC, crushed and sieved before it was activated with 0.1m
HCl at 800
oC in a furnace. Batch adsorption experiment
was carried out at variable…
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In this work, statistical modeling and
optimization of biodiesel production from Azadirachta
Indica(neem) using co-solvent technique via a two-step
transesterification process was carried out. Neem oil was
extracted from neem seeds and properties such as moisture
content, specific gravity, acid value, saponification value
and iodine value were determined. The experimental design
used was Central Composite Design. The range of factor
levels used for the Central Composite Design were reaction
temperature (30°C to 46°C), catalyst amount (0.8% to
1.2%, w/w),…
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Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies
of the adsorption of erythrosine dye onto activated carbon
from Periwinkle shell was carried out. The Periwinkle shell
were washed, dried, carbonized at 400
oC, crushed, sieved,
chemically activated at 800
oC, cooled, washed and dried at
110
oC. Variable influencing factors, such as contact time,
temperature and concentration were studied through singlefactor experiment, while other factors are kept constant (at
30min, 30
oC and 50mg/L) in each adsorption experiment. READ MORE Download Staff Profile


This study presents the application of ternary phase diagrams to tropical almond biodiesel
components separation and purification at two temperatures. The seed oil was extracted
mechanically and alkaline transesterified to produce biodiesel. The oil and biodiesel were
characterized using standard methods. Tie lines and binodal solubility curve data were
determined using modified cloud point titration procedures. Gas chromatographic method was
employed in the analysis of the phase compositions. The mixture of biodiesel, methanol and
glycerol were investigated at 20…
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The composition of jatropha oil and biodiesel has attracted extensive
research. However, fewer studies have been reported on the
functional properties of the oil and biodiesel. In this research, the
functional properties and physicochemical composition of jatropha
oil and biodiesel were investigated. The functional properties were
studied using spectroscopic method while the oil and biodiesel were
subjected to various physicochemical tests. The results obtained
revealed high levels of unsaturated fatty acid with linoleic and oleic
acids…
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This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the effects of surface
texture on the optical and light trapping properties of silicon wafers. Surface
texture is controlled by anisotropic etching with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and
isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solutions. The anisotropic etching of (001) crystalline
silicon wafers is shown to result in the formation of {111} pyramidal facets on the
surfaces of the wafers. A combination of profilometry, optical microscopy,
scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy…
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Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) seeds were examined for its starch composition and applicability as biomaterial in
hybrid composite materials development. The physicochemical properties of the starch extracted were then compared with
standard industrial maize starch. The starch was isolated using 1% w/v sodium metabisulphite solution and the obtained
starch was found to be a brilliant white, crystalline, non- hygroscopic powder with yield of about 21%. The starch percentage
solubility at 90°C was 2.36 with a swelling power of…
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We investigate the effect of surface texturing on the light trapping properties of Silicon wafers as a
function of reflection reduction and surface morphology. This was achieved by structuring a
random square-based pyramids pattern on the surface of Silicon substrate using anisotropy etching.
The light trapping effect was optimized for silicon solar cells by investigating the dependence of the
silicon surface texturing on the process parameters such as etchant concentration, etching time and
temperature. We study the surface morphology…
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) roots were crushed and the starch extracted in order to determine its starch
composition and use in biomaterials development as hybrid composites. The physicochemical properties of the isolated
starch were then determined and compared with standard industrial maize starch. The starch was isolated using 1% w/v
sodium metabisulphite solution and the obtained starch was found to be a white, crystalline, non- hygroscopic powder with
yield of about 18%. The starch percentage solubility at 90?C…
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The extraction and characterization of chitin from four sources of Nigerian
origin was investigated. Chemical demineralization and deproteinization was
done to obtain the chitin. Proximate analysis, XRD and SEM analysis were
conducted on obtained chitins. The investigation revealed that the shrimp had
the highest yield of chitin of 8.15%, crab, crayfish and periwinkle had yields
of 7.8%, 2.88% and 0.44% respectively. The proximate analysis showed that
chitin from shrimp had highest moisture and protein content of 8.70% and
4.16%…
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The production of methanol from different sources as alternate biofuel as well as gasolineblend fuel component will help in mitigating the adverse effect of using gasoline from
hydrocarbon as fuel for internal combustion engines. Kinetics and thermodynamics studies
were carried out in this study using the process of hydrolysis of methyl acetate catalyzed with
hydrochloric acid to produce methanol. The method employed was backward-titration which
was used to determine the concentration of methyl acetate catalyzed with hydrochloric acid in READ MORE Download Staff Profile


In this work, the effect of adding pumice powder to recycled beverage cans as reinforcement from 2 to 8 wt% in steps of 2 wt% was investigated. Manual stir casting technique was
employed. Some mechanical (rockwell hardness, impact strength, tensile strength) and physical
(density) properties were determined using standard methods. At 8 wt% pumice addition, an increment of 11.08% and 28.39% on hardness and tensile strength, respectively of the unreinforced recycled beverage can were recorded. However, the impact strength…
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This work compared the production of oil from the pericarps (peels) of avocado apple using steam
distillation and extraction (direct and indirect leaching) with respect to the yields. An improvised steam
distillation set-up was used at three different steam heating rates. It entailed the comminution of the
sample material suspended on a grid (perforated metal plate) 90mm above the water level and the
application of steam through the material. The steam percolated the material and subsequently vaporized
the oils…
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Sawdust and rice husk are available in abundance and indigenous in
Nigeria but have not been exploited because they cannot be used
directly in combustion processes due to their loose form unless by
pelleting or briquetting. This experimental study assesses the
potential of pellets from sawdust (SD) and rice husk (RH). Pallet
samples collected from mills were thereafter optimized in ratios (i.e.
90%RH:10%SD, 80%RH:20%SD, 70RH:30SD, 60%RH:40%SD,
50%RH:50%SD, 100%RH and 100%SD) using mixing ratio
optimization model. Seven…
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Sawmill dumpsites are characterised by combustion of wood
wastes which pollutes the environment. In this study, five tropical
species of wood wastes were collected from sawmill dumpsites in
Asaba Metropolis and used for experimental analysis. The
samples were chopped into particle sizes of 0.3 to 0.5 micrometres
and analysed in accordance to ASTM standards. The analyses
include the calorific value (CV), proximate and ultimate analyses.
Data generated from the analyses was used to evaluate the
potential carbon iv oxide…
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This work compared the extraction of oil from the pericarp (peels) of avocado apples using two different
solvents namely n–hexane and anhydrous ethanol. Direct and indirect leaching methods were used to
extract the oil from the pericarp of the apples. The extraction was carried out at different particle sizes,
times, and boiling points of the solvents. These were as follows: 0.75mm,1.00mm, 1.59mm and 2.00mm;
30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes; 60
0C and 780C for n–hexane…
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In this paper, the surface morphology of textured silicon substrates is explored. Prior to the surface morphology analysis, textured silicon
substrates were obtained by KOH anisotropic texturing of polished silicon wafers. This was achieved by investigating of the dependence
surface texturing on the process parameters; etchant concentration, etching time and temperature. The surface morphology of the textured
silicon samples was obtained using atomic force microscopy that was operated in the tapping mode. The resulting atomic force microscopy (AFM) images…
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Adsorption of Congo red dye onto activated carbon from periwinkle shell was
carried out to see if the activated carbon from Periwinkle shell will provide a good alternative
for the commercial activated carbon in the adsorption of Congo red dye from polluted water.
Periwinkle shells carbonized at 400
oC and activated with 0.1M HCl at 800oC in a furnace
was used as adsorbent to remove Congo red dye from aqueous solution. The effect of the
variables:…
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Accurate knowledge of the components in the purification of biodiesel is important in achieving consistency in quality for the separation and purification process. In this paper, ternary phase diagrams were
used to study the phase separation and puri
fication of tropical almond biodiesel at temperatures of 20 C,
30
C and 40 C. The biodiesel was produced using alkaline transesterification of the seed oil. The biodiesel…
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We investigated the properties of zinc sulphide thinfilms deposited using a field assisted electrostatic spray
pyrolysis deposition apparatus at an optimized substrate temperature, time, pressure and flowrate of 300
oC, 10minutes, 1atm
and 0.5ml/min respectively. The ZnS thin films were there-after annealed at 350
oC for 3hours. The influence of process
parameters on the properties of the ZnS thinfilms were investigated using x-ray diffractometry, uv-spectrophotometry and
profilometry. The morphology of the films and the nano-mechanical properties of…
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Kinetic data obtained from acid demineralization (using 1.25 N hydrochloric acid solution) of
deproteinized exoskeleton of shrimp was fitted to the shrinking core models for heterogeneous
reactions. The element of interest was calcium which was the most abundant element in the
deproteinized shrimp (66.27%) and the mostly affected by the demineralization. Experimental kinetic
data was fitted to the shrinking core model for fluid-particle reactions. Chemical reaction controlled
mechanism gave the best predictive model, as depicted by the fit (R
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This work analyses the Economic Dispatch of the power generated from the Proposed Nigerian 330KV integrated network using ETAP 12.6 software and the result simulated by Matlab software. The result obtained revealed that not all the generating stations of the Proposed Nigerian 330KV network will be in circuit during optimal power flow. The generating stations that are out of circuit are thermal power stations. This reduces the cost of generation, waste as well as saves energy from the…
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The effect of environmental conditions on photovoltaic modules is presented in this work. The average terminals voltages of three solar panels of 6, 12 and 33volts mounted on a gabbled rooftop of about 15meters high were examined for different priods.The result from the experiment reveals that the 6, 12 and 33volts panels by 7.30am generate their respective rated voltages. Further examination shows that between 12.00noon and 1.00pm local time, the panels output were maximally 9, 20.2 and 38volts…
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In recent years, the use of multimedia contents (image, audio, video and text) is rapidly increasing with the high growth and widespread use of the Internet and information technology. Due to this fact, tampering and illegal distribution of digital contents is inevitable because of their digital nature and as such it becomes imperative to devise mechanisms to protect such contents. Several mechanisms that have been proposed for data hiding are cryptography, steganography and watermarking. One of such mechanisms that have…
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Transmission of multicast traffic (such as video, data and voice services over World Wide Interoperability for Micro Wave Access “WiMAX” aims to make multicast traffic available to users anywhere, anytime and on any device. The major challenges of transmitting wireless traffic over WiMAX network through convention multicast schemes are throughput fluctuation (Variations) among the subscribers within the network coverage, unfair distribution of network resources, delay, delay jitter and packet drop because they are placed in different locations from the Base…
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This paper presents the novel structural analysis of ball-on-sphere system using bond graph technique. The structural analyses carried out are controllability and observability of the system. To achieve these analyses, the system was modelled using bond graph modelling technique. In the modelling procedures, the various subsystems, storage elements, junction structures, transformer elements with appropriate causality assignments and energy exchange that make up the ball-on-sphere system were identified and modelled. The structural controllability and observability properties of the system…
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The challenge in optimal resource allocation to mobile Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) subscribers has not been fully overcome by researchers. This research aimed at developing an optimal scheduling algorithm for WiMAX resource allocation based on an improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique. In this work, an improved PSO based technique for allocating subcarriers and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbols to mobile WiMAX subscribers is proposed using sub-group formation. The entire WiMAX network environment is sub-divided into 7…
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This paper studied external-source-excited vibration response of double-bay multi-storey building frames for the effect of joint stiffening on bending moment and joint displacement. One of the frames has normal rigid joints. Three others of the frames have stiffened joints of stiffened lengths: 275mm, 425mm and 775mm respectively. Lumped mass system was the dynamic model adopted. The frames were modeled as those with flexible horizontal members, permitting rotation of joints and having multi degrees of freedom (MDOF). Classical displacement method of…
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This paper presents exact solution of displacement fields of thick rectangular plate which was obtained using traditional third order refined theory for the bending of rectangular plates with different support cases under general boundary conditions. The aim of study is static bending analysis of an isotropic rectangular thick plate using analytical method. Total potential energy equation of a thick plate was formulated from the first principle. This equation was subjected to direct variation to obtain three simultaneous direct governing equations…
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Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and gamma ray densitometry have found applications in multiphase flows as both have been used to visualize flow patterns in the process, nuclear, chemical and oil-gas industries. However, liquid viscosity is often limited to about 10 cP in most of these applications. This study evaluates the suitability of ECT in the monitoring of multiphase flow consisting of heavy-oil (up to 7500 cP) and gas. Heavy-oil is of interest because of its huge reserves, increasing world energy…
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Slug flow is one of the most critical and often encountered flow patterns in the oil and gas industry. It is characterised by intermittency which results in large
fluctuations in liquid holdup and pressure gradient. A proper understanding of its parameters (such as slug holdup) is essential in the design of transport facilities (e.g.
pipelines) and process equipment (slug catchers, separators etc.). In this paper, experimental investigation of slug liquid holdup (defined as the liquid volume fraction
in the slug…
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This work borders on the techno-economic comparisons between the conventional Fischer-
Tropsch process and a developed Bio-conversion process route for natural gas to liquid fuel
production. The FT and Bio-GTL processes were simulated using natural gas as feed stock.
FT synthesis produced an overall feed conversion of 12.84% to liquid fuel and a wide
distribution of products with more products present in the LPG fraction. A carbon conversion
efficiency of 45.02% was obtained showing the maturity of the technology. On…
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Polymer catalyst for biodiesel production was developed and the catalytic activity dependence an preparation conditions, ranging from absorbed radiation dose, …..

 

 

 


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In the quest for inexpensive feedstocks for the cost-effective production of liquid fuels, we
have examined gaseous substrates that could be made available at low cost and sufficiently
large scale for industrial fuel production. Here, attempt is made at simulating a new
bioconversion scheme that effectively converts syngas, generated from gasification of natural
gas into lipids that can be used for biodiesel production. An integrated conversion method
comprising a two-stage system. In the first stage, an anaerobic bioreactor converts mixtures READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


 Abstract

Mechanical machining processes are common manufacturing strategies to re-shape materials to desired specification. The mechanistic approach has revealed the mechanics of the machining  processes with various parameters determined. The aim of this work is to investigate the  impact of swept angle optimization and their influence on the specific cutting energy in milling AISI 1045 steel alloy. This is achieved by varying the step over at different feed rate values in order to determine the optimization criterion for…
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Abstract

Mechanical machining processes are common manufacturing strategies to re-shape materials to desired specification. The mechanistic approach has revealed the mechanics of the machining  processes with various parameters determined. The aim of this work is to investigate the  impact of swept angle optimization and their influence on the specific cutting energy in milling AISI 1045 steel alloy. This is achieved by varying the step over at different feed rate values in order to determine the optimization criterion for…
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Abstract

Toolpath orientations and axes weights have been identified as some of the parameters that could influence the electrical energy consumption and sustainable machining objectives. However, power evaluations of the machine tool axes when carrying different weights and in different toolpath trajectories have not been fully implemented for energy management in machining processes. This work proposes a framework for determining optimum toolpath orientations by conducting a comparative study and individualization analysis of axes weights for electrical power consumption…
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Abstract

The optimization of electrical energy demand is an important objective function in machining science. This ensue minimum cost and specific energy demand of manufacturing processes. Mechanical machining as one of the major manufacturing processes consumed on average 38 TWh of electrical energy. This generated on average 16 million tones of CO2 emitted to the environment in the UK in 2012. Since carbon dioxide emission is attributable to electrical energy consumption, urgent action is required at all levels…
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Abstract

The change of an object's position with respect to time and a reference point is usually adopted to determine its velocity. This is usually a function of time. Velocity can be deduced in terms of its speed and direction of motion. It is an important concept in the description of kinematics and mechanics of bodies which entails the definitions of the bodies magnitude and direction. This project is one of the teaching series of smart technology development…
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Radiation-induced graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene onto a polyethylene substrate was carefully performed…

 

 

 


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This study deals with the mass transfer evaluation of the graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene unto irradiated polyethylene substrates…

 

 


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Methyl ester also called biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine that is produced from renewable agricultural products…..

 

 

 


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Abstract

This study presents an approach for determining energy efficient toolpaths using numerical control (NC)-based energy demand software. To achieve this, NC programmes were generated for the true spiral, rectangular spiral, and square contour toolpaths from HyperMill, a commercially available Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software for performing pocket milling of AISI 1018 steel on a 3-axis CNC milling machine. These programmes were uploaded as input on the graphical user interface (GUI) of the NC code-based energy demand software. The…
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Abstract

The aim of this work is to determine the influence of cutting edge radius on the specific cutting energy and surface finish in a mechanical machining process. This was achieved by assessing the direct electrical energy demand during side milling of aluminium AW6082-T6 alloy and AISI 1018 steel in a dry cutting environment using three different cutting tool inserts. The specific energy coefficient was evaluated as an index of the sustainable milling process. The surface finish of…
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Abstract

Electromagnetic devices have become increasingly important within the manufacturing industries and their applications ranges from memory devices, semiconductors to medical and bio-mechatronics (i.e. in the testing of medicines and observation of human internal organs). However, due to high cost and availability, the equipment capable of measuring the magnetic field of humane treatment and observations are difficult to acquire. This work is carried out to develop resources that can be widely adopted for the purpose of presenting science…
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Abstract

The environmental impact of conventional machining processes as influenced by the consumption of electrical energy resources is one of the contributing factors to global warming potentials and pollution. This is as a result of CO2 emission in the manufacturing process. Mechanical machining is one of the most commonly used processes and a major electrical energy consumer in manufacturing sector. In this paper, a framework is presented to validate the energy consumption model previously proposed using the computer…
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This research work show cases the potentials of Itakpe Iron concentrate for magneto-rheological abilities. The concentrate was first ball milled to reduce its size and then subjected to low magnetic strength from magnetic bits in-situ the magnetic fluid. It was determined that temperature affected the fluid inversely, as temperature increased at the shear rates from the viscometer and Newtonian viscosity calculated reduced, giving a negative relationship between temperature and Newtonian viscosity as loading remained constant. The magneto viscous property of…
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The steam reforming of biomass pyrolysis oil is a well-established means of producing the more useful biohydrogen.
Bio-oil has a comparatively low heating value, incomplete volatility and acidity, hence upgrading
to a more useful product is required. Over the years, the experimental conditions of the process have been
studied extensively in the domain of catalysis and process variable optimisation. Sorption enhancement is now
being applied to the system to improve the purity of the hydrogen stream. Lifecycle analyses has revealed…
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The work embraced a modified design, construction and test running of an industrial size vertical shaft lime kiln. The lime kiln was 3.0 m tall with internal diameter of 0.6 m. It was designed for a maximum charging of 1.5 tonnes of limestone, while about 250 kg of lime was to be discharged every three hours. This offered the system a semi-batch process. The stability and integrity of the plant installation was good based on the thermal insulation. A calcination…
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This work studies the use of the Progressive Diffusion Reaction Model (PDRM) in modelling the graft polymerization of 4 – Chloromethylstyrene unto irradiated polyethylene substrates. The graft polymerization process being modelled is the active step in the synthesis of a novel polymer-based catalyst for biodiesel production. Experimental data for the graft polymerization process and certain process data needed for the modelling were obtained/evaluated from literature. The PDRM was derived from material balance equations on a spherical particle with a hypothetical…
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Morphological and mechanical properties of natural rubber filled with palm kernel mesocarp (PKM) were succinctly investigated in this study. Samples of palm kernel mesocarp were washed, dried, ball milled to fine particle size and used in compounding natural rubber with filler loading ranging from 5 to 30 parts per hundred (pph). Properties investigated were tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break, hardness, abrasion resistance and compression set. The results revealed that the tensile strength increased from13.68 to 25.43 ????????????2?, modulus,…
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Due to the increasing yearn to go environment friendly, keen interest has been placed on biofuels, this leads to further
studies and research in biofuels. A search for suitable vegetable/plant oil that can work just as fossil fuels and be ecofriendly
was made. Hence, the study of this work investigates the production of biodiesel from non-edible Hevea
brasiliensis oil. The process was catalysed by two-step acid base transesterification. Reaction parameters, such as
reaction temperature and time were studied. The yield…
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This paper seeks to provide a general overview of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) in
engineering and technology with special emphasis on Disaster Risk Management as it
borders on the Chemical Engineering discipline. Terms such as disaster, risk, risk
management and disaster risk management as it concerns the fields of engineering and
technology are defined to provide a fine background and refresher for the subject matter
under consideration. Hazards identification is established as the basis for risk analysis,
assessment and consequently…
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The behaviours and performances of an ideal grafting of 4-chloromethylstyrene onto polyethylene substrates were
predicted/discussed using designed models. (MATLAB) (matrix laboratory) amulti-paradigm numerical computing
environment and fourth-generation programming language. was used as the model simulator due to its very broad
and all-encompassing functions and capabilities. The models designed were compared and contrasted wi th one
another and also with the experimental data for validation. Inferences were drawn on the basis of the findings and
within the confines of the…
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This paper is about the development of a Nigerian Chemical Engineering Curriculum of world class
standards to train indigenous Chemical Engineers that will be instrumental to meeting the Chemical
Engineering related needs of Nigeria. A brief history of the Nigerian Chemical Engineering
undergraduate program is presented. The present state of the Curriculum was examined and
compared with the Chemical Engineering Curricula of Universities with well-established Chemical
Engineering Programs outside Nigeria. It was observed that about seventy-five (75) required courses READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


This work examined the suitability of dilute acid pre-treatment for treating waste peels of
Manihot esculenta crantz (tropical specie of cassava) for bioethanol production. Waste cassava
peels constitute an abundant agricultural waste mostly prevalent in Nigeria. Cassava peels were
collected, washed, the brownish parts removed and the white parenchymatous layer dried and
ground into powdery form. Dilute acid pre-treatment was carried out using an autoclave. 100ml
of 0.5% sulphuric acid was added to 30g of the sample to remove the…
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Pinch analysis incorporated in Aspen energy analyzer software was
used in this study in the design, optimization and identification of areas
requiring improvement in the heat exchanger networks of naphtha
hydrotreating units of a Kaduna Refinery naphtha hydrotreating unit
(NHU) with the aim of minimizing total cost. The result obtained was
an optimal total cost (OTC) of $263.1/s from the initial target cost
(ITC) of $298.8/s. The target heating and cooling were observed to be
1.395 x107kcal/h and 1.440 x107kcal/h…
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In view of the need to enhance the mechanical properties of vulcanisates, this study evaluated the potentials of carbonised wood-flour in this regard. Samples of wood-flour were carbonised at 600 ? and 700 ?. The characterisation results revealed an increase in the pH (7.14 to 8.99) and loss on ignition (76.32 to 82.04%) of the carbonised wood-flour with increase in the carbonisation temperature. There was also a significant decrease in moisture content (0.21 to 0.15%) and bulk density (0.63 to…
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Agriculture is an important sector in most African countries. Large amounts of quantities of residues are
produced during the processing and consumption of agricultural products. The feedstock that was studied are banana
(Musa spp.) peels, orange (Citrus sinensis) peels, sweet lime (Citrus limetta) peels, lemon (Citrus limon) peels and
jackfruit (Artocarpus heterphyllus) peel. ASPEN plus V8.8 was used to develop a steady-state model for the pyrolysis
of the different fruit peel wastes. The pyrolysis simulation was done at 500oC and…
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This work is aimed at selective solvent extraction of palmitic acid from Plantain Stalk Residues (PSR). Plantain stalk
obtained from the waste stream of a local market was used in this study. The stalk was grated and the extract obtained during the
grating process was oven dried at a temperature of 70oC. The residue referred to as NT was characterized using Gas
chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) to ascertain the presence of fatty acids with much preference given to palmitic acid.
This…
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The Nigerian basic metal and steel industry as we know it today is sickly. This paper seeks to
highlight the present day challenges of the industry and proffer solutions achievable via
academia-industry partnership and government playing its roles effectively. Information were
sourced through Oral interviews with key members of the industry, plant visits and literature
review. In this paper, a summary of the history of the Nigerian basic metal and steel industry
is provided, the major challenges of the industry…
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Steam reforming of biomass bio-oil is a technique of producing bio-hydrogen which is an important biofuel.
Acetic acid is a major constituent of biomass bio-oil especially its aqueous phase. In this study, the thermodynamic
analysis of the steam reforming of acetic acid was considered in conjunction with the utilising of a novel
statistical approach. Response surface methodology was used to elucidate possible interactions of the process
factors and be used to develop regression models for the prediction of percentage molar…
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Biodiesels obtained from renewable energy sources are considered to be good alternatives to traditional fuel
sources due to their environmental friendliness. Purification of the biodiesel upper-rich phase composition after
transesterification is often influenced by some parameters. This study investigated the influence of temperature
and time interval on the purification of biodiesel upper-rich phase mixture composition of Jatropha oil biodiesel
system consisting of Jatropha oil biodiesel, methanol, glycerol at (20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C, 50°C,
55°C, 60°C) and (2, 4,…
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Abstract:

Oil reserve is defined as an estimate of how much oil can ultimately be recovered. This broad definition is also called oil in place. It includes undiscovered or "yet to find" reserves. It's based on the probability of finding reserves in certain geological areas. It also assumes that new types of technology will make it economically feasible to extract the oil. Nigeria oil and gas reserves have increased to 37 billion barrels. It can also be said…
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Rubbing and ploughing increase the tool tip energy demand in machining. An efficient set of cutting conditions would direct the energy into material shearing and hence selecting the efficient set is a value adding activity. In this work, a side milling tests were conducted on a milling machine tool to investigate the specific ploughing energy on AISI 1045 steel alloy, titanium 6Ale4V alloy and aluminium AW6082-T6 alloy materials. The relationship between the cutter swept angle and the specific…
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3D printing can spur manufacturing rebirth in Nigeria and the World in general. There are many areas where 3D printing is creating significant change, particularly in designing and prototyping of new products, in the arts, and in visualizing abstract concepts. This is a step change from conventional manufacturing processes to rapid prototyping and layer manufacturing. This report has defined rapid prototyping, rapid manufacturing and the current technologies available to fabricate 3D components. In addition to this, it provides…
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Energy demand reduction is a grand challenge for manufacturing sustainability in order to reduce the escalating cost of energy and to cut down on the carbon footprint of manufacturing processes. The direct electrical energy requirements in manufacturing and machining in particular can be modelled from the basic energy required by the machine tool and the energy for actual material removal (tip energy). However, energy centric modelling of manufacturing processes is in its infancy and related material processing data is limited…
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The aim of this research was to contribute towards the development of a new mathematical model and logic for predicting direct electrical energy requirements in machining toolpaths. This model will track the visibility and process dependence of energy and hence carbon footprint in machining process. This study includes a critical review of similar existing models and their limitations. The effect that machine modules, auxiliary units and machine codes have on power and energy consumption during machining was studied…
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This paper presents an approach to analytically determine the most energy efficient toolpath strategy in mechanical machining. This was achieved by evaluating the electrical energy requirement of the NC codes generated for the zag, zigzag, and rectangular contour toolpath strategies. The analytical method was validated by performing pocket milling on AISI 1018 steel with the considered toolpaths using a 3-axis Takisawa Mac-V3 milling machine. The rectangular contour toolpath was the most efficient in terms of the electrical energy…
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In the past, the cutting conditions that meet the economic and environmental objectives of the specified manufacturing process were selected based on minimum tooling cost and/or minimum electrical energy criterion. However, detailed modelling of electrical energy based on tool life and cost criterion has not been addressed. In this study, machining tests were conducted to develop a cost model which includes machining energy, and to assess the impact of the extended tool life model with regards to selection…
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Limited availability of natural resources and the negative environmental burden of industrial processes are driving environmental awareness and resource efficiency improvements in manufacturing. Issues of concern in mechanical machining arise from the significant use of electrical energy and oil-based coolants/lubricants. Process innovation through high speed machining has enabled manufacturing cycle times to be reduced and in some cases promoted dry machining or the use of minimum quantity lubrication. However, the environmental assessment of these innovations has hardly been…
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The major motive of any business organization is to make profit.  This is particularly so in the private sector.  In the public sector, the forefront aim is to satisfy the needs of the masses/to achieve either of the managerial aims; the management of the enterprise should put its axe together.  This entails planning, a good planning  initiative commences with adequate budgetary process.  This calls for a team effort.   The team should be ggg embracing.  The decision making process…
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Decision making is an important aspect of planning.  Planning has primacy in the functions of management: planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling.  All these are activities of Production, Marketing, Finance, Human Resource Management, Purchasing and Innovation which are activities in management.  Decisions are unique in the sense that there must be courses of action to select from.  Moreover, decisions are of three types namely those under certainty; uncertainty and risk.  In certainty, the decision maker is sure of…
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Demand is the willingness and ability of buying a product at a given price within a specific period of time.  It is a flow concept as it has quantity and time dimensions.  Demand forecasting is not a process that involves a crystal ball.  It rather involves carrying forward past data.  The main objective of the paper is to do a theoretical review of demand forecasting, solve a demand forecasting example and to set a multiple regression example.  Price…
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The interest of this work was aroused by the perception of workers’ wrong attitude towards female executives in Nigerian organizations.  Considering the fact that female executives are not adequately represented in firms, it became imperative that organizations where females are in management positions should be looked into and suggestions made for the right attitude by workers to female executives to bring out the best in them in the performance of their jobs.  This assignment, therefore, is undertaken to…
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The purpose of going to business is to make profit, thus cost minimization and profit maximization one of the objective of management.  The more cost is reduced the greatest the profit, thus, the purpose of transportation cost to the barest contribution or profit to the organization.  The transportation problem is a peculiar form of the linear programming model, however solve using a different technique apart from the simplex method


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Third world is that part of the world that has developing countries located in Africa, Latin America and Asia.  Third World Development consists of an increase in socio-economic condition from a lower to a more desirable state of Development challenges are barriers, setbacks, problems and threats that make it difficult for the countries in the Third world not to move from a lower socio-economic condition to a higher one. A millennium consists of 1000 years.  So the Third…
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This paper takes a critical at the dimensions of social responsibility and the challengers of enforcing organizational goals in Nigeria. Business leaders are expected to develop strategy policy as regards it role in the environment where it is operating. Such policy formulation is in the area of social responsibility that would help to care for host community. Emphasis must be on the needs of the society, implement the programme develop and fully communicate its activities through social audit. It is…
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Research is the process of investigating or finding out something new or improvement of poor result in a systematic way thereby increasing knowledge.  National development is that increase of the national income or total volume of production of goods and services of a country accompanied by improvements in the total standard of living of the people.  It is a total upward structural shift of the social system in terms of a capacity to produce, supply, distribute and consume…
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Motivation is a will to do.  It is a psychological process.  It aimed at achieving organizational objectives.  Abraham Maslow (2008) identified 8 needs.  The new needs are those of knowledge and understanding, duty and esthetic, and transcending going beyond ordinary.


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      In the early 1900’s when banking business was introduced into the country, the business wasn’t that progressing and attractive, not until in the 1960’s when training and manpower development has taken place.  With so many people highlighting on the impact of training and manpower development in an organization, Iyayi (2005) described training and manpower development as the activities that are directed towards providing the people of an organization with the skills, attitudes and motivation needed to perform…
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The Human Resource is the totality of the skills, potentialities and competencies of the human being.  The human resource along with other resources materials, money, time, knowledge and energy are the inputs which have to be transformed by the process made up of machines, methods and maintenance to get the outputs of goods and services.  Human Resource management is the function area that is responsible for managing people at work.  Right from 1903 to 2010, the crude oil…
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The study examines the effectiveness of queuing models in the establishment and services organizatins.  It attempts to find a balance between cost associated with having to wait for service and the costs of providing a fast service.  Queuing model are set of tools for analyzing such problems concerned with providing service to customers. It helps to determine the Distribution of inter-arrival times.  Distribution of service times and gives the number of servers.  Queuing theory system have an effect…
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The main objective of the paper is to do a theoretical discussion of Due Process in government procurement vis-à-vis challenges its implementation in Nigeria.  It becomes necessary that contract; government agency should have proceedings, transparency without favouritism and corruptible tendencies, which should be implementable and enforceable in Nigeria.  The paper examines the background problems and subsidiaries objectives of Due Process Procurement in Nigeria where also revealed.  The assessment of the operational structure(s) arising from the different levels of…
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The main objective of this work is to critically examine cost-effective reporting standard in small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria.  There is a considerable debate over the appropriate role for small and medium scale enterprises.  Years back, there has been controversy as to whatever the current financial reporting system for small and medium scale enterprise (SMEs) is adequate.  It has been encountered in different countries of the world, including Nigeria.  This study tries to look into the…
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The study of consumer behavior is primarily concerned with finding out how individuals, groups and organizations select, buy, use and dispose of goods, services, ideas or experiences in orders to satisfy their needs and wants. This paper focuses on the impact of the process of producing and consuming of goods and services on the environment in which we live. It traces the history of the concept of the environment and examines the sustainability questions in an attempt to…
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 A business is defined as a venture which is established by an Individual, a group, an Organisation, a Government or a set of Government with the aim of making profit.  Profit is the positive difference between total revenue and cost.  Research means to search again or to do a cursory examination on an event, an activity or an issue of interest.  Sustainable Development means ensuring that the needs of the present generation are satisfied without hampering the future…
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Business is any activity that an individual engages into that leads to the satisfaction of human wants. Poverty is a situation when a person is not able to meet up his basic needs of food, shelter, clothing and subsistence employment; he can be said to be a poor person. The dimension of poverty ranges from infinity complex and personality adjustment problems. Sometimes some beg like children, some may not even eat what she or he wants to eat.…
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African countries are that part that has developing in which people with lowest income improves in material welfare.  It has increase overtime of an economy’s capacity to produce those goods and services needed to improve the wellbeing of the citizen in increasing numbers and diversity.  African production development merely is the creation of utility in both micro and macro and economic studies that are estimated nationally at least, the varying levels of production and output both the firm…
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The research work is to determine the feasibility and viability of establishing a new soap manufacturing firm in Shomolu-Bariga area of Lagos State.  From investigation, it has been revealed that customers around Shomolu-Bariga of Lagos State Area are not satisfied with the quality of soap available in the market.  Besides, most of the soap manufacturing firms in Lagos are sited in more popular areas like Ikeja, Lagos Island, etc.  Therefore, the significance of this project or feasibility study…
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Abstract
Introduction: To determine the possibility of utilizing total lymphocyte counts (TLC) instead of
CD4 counts in the initiation and management of patients with HIV on highly active antiretroviral
therapy (HAART). The commencement of HAART CD4 lymphocytes has been employed in the
management HIV. However it has been found that determination of CD4 counts is expensive and
somewhat laborious to perform in already overburdened healthcare systems especially in the developing
countries. Methodology: Five hundred and three (503) consenting patients already…
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Background: Transfusion-transmissible infectious agents such as hepatitis B virus (HBV),
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis are among the
greatest threats to blood safety for transfusion recipients and pose a serious public health problem.
This cross-sectional study was undertaken with the aim of determining the seroprevalence of
HIV, HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and syphilis and correlates the findings with
sex and age to ascertain the associations, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. READ MORE Download Staff Profile


ABSTRACT
Purpose: Feto-maternal haemorrhage (FMH) is a complication of pregnancy and large FMH may lead to life-threaten- ing anaemia in the fetus or newborn. In addition, exposure of Rhesus (Rh) D negative women to small amounts of fetal Rh D positive red cells during pregnancy or delivery may result in sensitization with its attendant problems of isoim-munisation. In most cases, the cause of FMH IS unknown. Through this study, we sought to determine if placental weight & diameter have any…
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ABSTRACT
A cross-sectional study was carried out in Ilie community of Olorunda Local Government Area in Osun state, southwestern
Nigeria to comparatively evaluate the presumptive diagnosis of schistosoma infections using microscopy as gold standard. One
hundred and thirty seven consented primary school children aged 4 to 15 years were examined for presence of schistosome eggs.
The urine samples were analyzed with urinalysis strips for microhaematuria as indicators of presumptive diagnosis for urinary
schistosomiasis while fecal samples were analyzed with fecal…
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Urinary Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health importance in Africa affecting
children. It relationship with malnutrition is well pronounced in Nigeria and impairs growth of
the affected children or persons. This work investigates the nutritional status of children
infected with urinary schistosomiasis. The Anthropometric indices of the studied children
were determined according to standard procedures and related to intensity of Schistosom.
haematobium infection. The weight, height and Age were Anthropometric indices used in this
study. A total of…
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Antioxidant, hypolipidemic and Hypoglycemic Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats.


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Abstract
Background Stroke is a very troubling illness as it not only disables its victim, but also kills most of them outright. Its rate is increasing in the developing countries and this drains their finances. As a result many seek management of their condition in herbal homes. But of recent there is a preference to herbal medicine by most stroke survivors, irrespective of social status. This is a new phenomenon.
Objective The main objective of this study was to assess…
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ABSTRACT
Despite important progress in the management of diabetes using synthetic drugs, many traditional plant treatments
are still being used throughout the world.
The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol leaf extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on the
histology of the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Thirty rats divided into six groups (n=5). Groups I and II
received only normal saline; group III received 2 mg/kg of glibenclamide; groups IV, V and VI received 125, 250, READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Abstract
Objective: The study was aimed at investigating the hypoglycemic, antioxidant and Hepatoprotective
effects of Chrysophyllum albidum in diabetes induced male Wistar rats. Methods: Ethanol root bark
extract was administered to thirty rats of six groups A, B, C, D, E and F of five rats each, weighing
between 150-170g. Diabetes was induced in Groups B, C, D, E and F using a single intraperitoneal
injection of 140mg/kg of Alloxan after an overnight fast. Group A served as the normal…
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Summary: The present study was conducted to investigate the antifertility activity of the ethanol root bark extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on sperm parameter and hormonal levels in rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups of six animals each. The first group (A) received distilled water and served as control. The second and third group (B & C) of animals were administered the ethanol root bark extract daily at 100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg decrease in the caudal epididymal…
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Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lime juice on the fetal parameters of Sprague-Dawley rats
Materials and Methods: Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used. They were randomly divided into 2 groups (I and II) of 10 rats each. The estrous cycles of the rats were studied for the first 16 days to establish cyclicity. The rats were mated with male SD rats of proven fertility on the estrous day (heat period) of…
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ABSTRACT
Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is classified as mutagenic and carcinogenic although used in food and
cosmetics industries, and also found in drinking water as a by-product of disinfection. Industrial
pollution of drinking water and its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier lead to the investigation of its
effect on the cerebral cortex. Twenty adult Wistar rats with average weight of 200 g were divided into
four groups designated as ‘A’ for the control group, and ‘B, C and D’ for…
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Abstract:
Purpose: The ethanolic root bark of Chrysophyllum albidum were evaluated for their effect on antioxidant
enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde)
activities in rats.
Methods: Eighteen male Wister rats weighing 100-200g were divided into three groups of six animals each.
Two treated groups received a daily dose of ethanolic root bark of Chrysophyllum albidum at 100mg/kg and
200mg/kg body weight respectively via gastric gavage, while equal volume of normal saline was administered
to…
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ABSTRACT
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on hormones and sperm analysis of laboratory rats. Fifteen male rats weighing 230-250g were completely randomised into three groups: A-C. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered with 0.5ml of distilled water once daily for 21 days while those in Groups B and C, received 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively), and effect of the treatment on…
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ABSTRACT Objectives: Study was carried out to determine the incidence of male infertility in Medical Art Center, Maryland Ikeja Lagos, Western. Nigeria. Method: The specimens were collected and analyzed in the andrology laboratory. The standard method of masturbation after 3-5 days of prior abstinence from sex before sample collection was applied. The samples were examined for semen volume, morphology, sperm motility and count. Result: The semen samples of 263 (two hundred and sixty three) males attending infertility clinic, aged between…
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Abstract: It was therefore the aim of this study to find out whether long term consumption of cooked and uncooked
beans (cowpea) diet has effects on some neurobehavioral parameters such as anxiety and fear using Swiss white mice as
experimental animals, since cowpea contain serotonin and its precursor 5-Hydroxytryptophan which have
neurobehavioral effects. Forty (40) Swiss mice were randomly assigned into four groups. Control (group A) were fed
normal rodent chow, cooked beans (group B) received cooked beans diet (50%…
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Abstract
The use of Mucunaflagellipes in recent time has been on the increase as a result of its speculated therapeutic effect mostly on the
protein level of the body. And owing to the fact that there are no detailed reports on Mucunaflagellipes on its effect on neurobehavioral
parameters, this work is therefore intended to investigate the possible effects of this herb on the exploratory behavior and body
weight in Swiss white mice. Twenty (20) mice of mixed sex were randomly…
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Background: Telfairia occidentalis seed is a multipurpose
plant with many attributes and considerable therapeutic
potentials. Carbon Tetrachloride is one of the oldest and
most widely used toxins for experimental induction of liver
fibrosis in laboratory animals. The Liver is usually the organ
to receive the effect of this chemical thereby causing
hepatotoxicity, simply because of its method of metabolism,
as well as carrying out the first pass effect by metabolizing
endogenous and exogenous substances hence its
consideration.
Aim: The aim…
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ABSTRACT
Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves have been used against many disorders, such as rheumatism, fever, headache,
diarrhea, and loss of appetite. Cassava leaves reportedly also possess anti-hemorrhoid, anti-inflammatory, and
antimicrobial activity. The aim is to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Manihot esculenta and piroxicam
co-administration for induced gastro-toxicity in male wistar rats and thus determine histo-morphologic changes in
the stomach due to piroxicam-mediated toxicity. The leaves of Manihot esculenta leaves were collected and dried
for two weeks at…
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ABSTRACT
The aim of this present study is to investigate the effect of repeated administration of 5-Hydroxytryptophan diet (5-HTP)
on learning and memory using CD-1 mice as experimental animals. Twenty male (20) mice were randomly assigned into
two groups of ten mice each, namely; Control and 5-Hydroxytryptophan diet (15%w/w) groups. Feeding lasted for 28
days, during which there were daily measurements of food intake, water intake and body weight changes. Thereafter, the
Morris water maze task was used to assess…
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Abstract
Original Article
Introduction
Every individual needs a certain amount of body fat for
energy, heat insulation, and shock absorption. However,
excessive deposition of fat in the body, which is usually
referred to as overweight or obesity, has been found to be
medically deleterious to the body. Overweight specifically
refers to an excess body weight compared to set standards,
while obesity is to have an abnormally high proportion of
total body fat.[1]
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess…
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ABSTRACT
Background: The morphology of an individual‘s external ear and its
dimensions vary amongst persons to the point that the right and left ears
differ.
Aims: This study is aimed at establishing the anatomical variation in the
auricular structure of the students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Methods: The study utilizes a total of 200 students, 101 male and 99 female
subjects within the age range of 16-30 years. Total ear length and breadth of
both ears were measured…
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Abstract
Excess body fat deposition is known to be unhealthy. There have been several
discourses on defined anthropometric indices for the assessment and a better
prediction of obesity in pregnant women. This is because certain cut-off values
relating to obesity in pregnant subjects are highly influenced by age, sex, ethnicity
and trimesters of pregnancy. This study is aimed at investigating the use of two
basic anthropometric indices to measure obesity and evaluate its prevalence in
the different trimesters of pregnancy.…
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ABSTRACT
Since prehistoric times, man has relied on herbal plants as source of medicine in curing various ailments. This
study was carried out to assess the anti- anxiety-like effect of the ethanol extract of Wild fig (Ficus thonningii) in
Swiss white (CD-1) mice. Thirty Swiss mice were randomly divided into three groups (1-3), n=10). Group 1
(control) was administered normal rat fed and saline, while group 2(low dose) and group 3(high dose) were
administered 10mg/kg w/w and 20mg/kg w/w of…
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Abstract
Ficus thonningii plant has been reported to be used for the treatment of various ailments, such as stomach ache, pain diarrhea, etc. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate its effect on exploratory/locomotor activities of the ethanol extract of the leaves of the plant. Exploration/locomotor behavior were assessed using the open field maze and the light/dark transition box tests. Animals were divided into three groups containing 10 mice each. Group A served as the control which was…
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The anxiolytic effect of the leaves of water lily was investigated using mice as experimental
animals. Thirty (30) were mice randomly divided into group 1, 2 and 3. Before the neurobehavioral
parameters were assessed, the LD50 and the phytochemical screening of the leaves of the plant
were determined. The open field maze and the transition box apparatus were used to determine
the level of fear and anxiety related behaviors in mice. In the open field arena, the grooming
frequency was…
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ABSTRACT:
The abuse of chemicals particularly psychoactive substances has been on the increase amongst the youth
populace to the extent of becoming a front burner and top category public health concern in many developing
nations of Africa, hence the aim of this study to evaluate the use of psychoactive substance and its risk factors
among secondary school students in Port Harcourt LGA of Rivers State, so as to establish the prevalence rate of
the use of the substances among the…
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Study Background: Toxoplasma gondii a protozoan and zoonotic infection can stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Aims
and Objectives: This work was designed to determine relationship between parasitic infection of T. gondii, interleukin?2 (IL?2), tumor
necrosis factor?alpha (TNF??), and Tryptophan and CD4+ count. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 individuals aged 21–73 years
(male: 100 and female: 50) were recruited from Saki?West, Saki?East, and ATISBO local governments of Nigeria. Plasma TNF??, IL?2,
Tryptophan, anti?hepatitis C virus (anti?HCV), hepatitis B…
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Background: Viral biomarkers in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) could be a primary or secondary viral infection to PTB which may depressed
immunity or make the patient susceptible to the secondary infection. Aim and Objective: This work was, therefore, designed to determine
frequency of anti?hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B envelope
antibody (HBeAb), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?1 p24 in newly infected Mycobacterium PTB patients. Materials and Methods:
Sixty newly infected Mycobacterium…
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Abstract
Infectious agents and chemical substances can trigger the production and the release of cytokines.
To determine the pattern of infectious agents in herbal homes patients with elevated TNF? (? 5.0
pg/ml) in Saki – West-Nigeria. The subjects include patients with elevated TNF? (? 5.0 pg/ml) in 15
herbal homes(n=23 ; aged 5-69 years; males – 13 ; females – 10) and patients with elevated TNF? in
3 major hospitals (n = 32; aged 6 -67years; males – 12 ;…
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An intellectual is a well educated person that could reason logically and understand the phenomena around him or her.  The understanding through the Intellectual’s Education and Training enables him or her to be able to simulate and implement new strategies.  A strategy is about generalship to have courses of action with such elements as product-market scope, goals and objectives, deployment of emphasis.  Competitive advantage and distinctive competence, growth vector and synergy to achieve comprehensive organizational and national objective. …
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Abstract Background: Drepanocytosis (sickle cell anaemia) is a genetic disorder that causes stiff, rod-like sickle-shaped haemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs) and consequently poses serious health complications. We investigated in vitro anti-sickling potential of a novel polyherbal formula (MPF). Methods: Sickling of RBCs induced with 2%sodium metabisulphite (MBS) was followed by treatment with MPF mixtures in different saline concentrations (7mg/ml, 9mg/ml, 14mg/ml and 28mg/ml). The red cell morphology was examined microscopically. Percentage sickling was quantified 30-minute interval at 370C for…
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ABSTRACT
Infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a public health problem. Worldwide, there are about 170 million people infected with
HCV. HCV is transmitted through sex and use of contaminated sharp objects during tattooing or intravenous drug abuse. These
routes make youth to be more vulnerable. Transfusion and mother to child transmissions are also documented modes. This
study was carried out to determine sero-prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among in school youth at Achievers University,
Owo in southwest…
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ABSTRACT
Background: The influences of tribes on coagulation profile have not been sufficiently investigated. However, Genetic factors contribute to the inter individual variation of blood coagulation protein levels (de Lange et al., 2001). This study was aimed to assess some coagulation profile on 420 subjects, age range 18-84years old, consisting of 60 subjects each from the different tribes (Igbo, Yoruba, Hausa, Ibibio, Ijaw, Urhobo and Efik) males and females all residing in Nnewi town, Anambra state Nigeria. Prothrombin Time (PT),…
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Social lifestyle plays a significant role in the transmission of human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV). Hence, abstinence and faithfulness are important for preventing
HIV transmission.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV antibodies among Muslims
in Osun state, Nigeria.
A total of 1554 Muslims who attended mosques for worship and provided consent
were recruited for this study. Relevant data were obtained using a pro forma
designed for this purpose. Blood specimens were collected for HIV screening
using Determine, Unigold,…
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Abstract
Background: The lives of patients living with HIV/AIDs have improved in terms of
longer life expectancy and quality. This has seen the emergence of complications of
the disease and the drugs such as metabolic syndrome and re-emergence of tuberculosis.
Co-infection with other viruses especially the hepatic viruses has also become a
major source of concern. The aim of this research is to determine the incidence of
hepatitis B and E among this group of patients. Methods and Findings: Blood…
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a b s t r a c t
Aim: This studyisthefirstattemptconductedtodeterminetheco-infectionratesofHepatitisCvirus
among peoplelivingwithHIV/AIDS(PLWHA)inourhospital.Thisisexpectedtoleadtoimprovementin
treatment protocols.
Background: Co-infection ofHepatitisCvirusinfectionandHIV(HumanImmuneDeficiencyVirus)infec-
tion isnottobeunexpectedastheyshareroutesofinfection.Thedetectionofsuchpatientsisparticularly
important asthetreatmentmayinvolvelifethreateningdruginteractions.Thiscouldresultinshorter
life expectancyofthepatients.
Materials andMethods: This isaprospectivestudy.Atotalof280subjectslivingwithHIV/AIDSwere
recruited intothisstudy.Seraoftheparticipantsweresubjectedtoanti-HCVantibody(IgG)screening
using thirdgenerationELISAkitfromDIA.PRO,Italy.TheprevalenceofHCVwasdeterminedandbar
charts andtableswereutilisedtodepicttheprevalenceratesofvariousgroups.
Results: Sixty five(23.2%)oftheparticipantswerefoundtobeco-infected.Noassociationwasestablished
between age,sex,partnersstatus,previoustransfusion,andnumberofpartners.
Conclusion: The prevalenceof23.2%forHCVamongPLWHAreportedforthiscommunityisalarming.
More focusshouldbedirectedonmanagementofHCVcomponentofcoinfectionthanitisdonenow.
Further studiesarerecommendedemployingmoleculartechniquestodeterminesubtypesofHCVthat
may bepredominantandwhythisfigureofco-infectionissohighinthestudylocation.


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Summary
This prospective study of parturients at a tertiary health institution in south-western Nigeria aims to identify the incidence,
severity and obstetric factors predisposing to feto – maternal haemorrhage (FMH) in our population. The exclusion criteria
were haemoglobinopathy and patient’s refusal of consent to participate in the study. The prepared slide was processed as in
the acid elution test described by Kleihauer – Betke. The FMH was calculated using Mollison formula (Mollison 1972).
Baseline data included maternal biodata, blood group,…
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Objective: HIV and HCV share routes of infection. Co-infection and its complications are therefore emerging as a major concern as patients on HAART have longer life expectancy. These complications have been well documented. It is necessary to determine in our environment what epidemiological factors are associated. This is expected to improve treatment protocols leading to increase quality of life and prolonged lifespan. Liver enzymes may be useful to monitor therapy. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study. Seventy age…
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Hospital and community acquired infections, continue to be a threat to public health, causing
morbidities and mortalities. This survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of
Enterobacteriaceae in nosocomial and community acquired infections among adults in LAUTECH
Teaching Hospital in Osogbo southwestern Nigeria. Two hundred and forty isolates from General Out
Patient Department (GOPD) and two hundred and forty isolates from different wards (Surgical, Medical,
Gyneacological, Pediatric, Burn Unit and Ear, Nose and Throat wards) of the hospital were…
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Abstract. Dengue fever is becoming one of the major public health problems in the world and
its distribution has been premised on the migration of people from infected regions. This
study was carried out to determine the prevalence of dengue virus IgG antibody among the
patients with febrile conditions attending health facilities in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern
Nigeria. The blood samples collected between July and September, 2014 were tested for
Plasmodium falciparum and the sera were subsequently subjected to Enzyme Linked READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Abstract
Dengue virus is one of the causative agents of viral haemorrhagic fever, which is transmitted primarily
through Aedes mosquitoes. Transmission of the virus through non-vector sources had been proven, although,
it is the most common arthropod-borne viral infection in human. This study was carried out to determine the
prevalence of Dengue Virus amongst voluntary blood donors in Osogbo, southwest Nigeria. Ninety one
voluntary non-remunerated donors that satisfied donor suitability criteria in Nigeria; having been considered
fit based on physical…
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Osogbo metropolis, with the aim of determining the degree of iron deficiency anaemia in the study population. One hundred confirmed anaemic and recently un-transfused patients with haemoglobin concentration level less than 8 g/dL were selected from two major hospitals in Osogbo. Participants were within aged 6 months – 65 years of both sexes. The parameters estimated were haematological indices using automation (Humancount machine). Serum iron and ferritin were also estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, blood film was made for every…
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Aims: A commercial rapid test kit for anti-Hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV) detection was
evaluated and compared for diagnosis of hepatitis C by detection of immunoglobulin
G(IgG) antibodies against a third generation Enzyme Immunoassay(EIA) as gold
standard.
Methodology: A total of 560 patient serum samples were subjected to rapid screening
with rapid test (immunochromatographic) strip supplied by Global Diagnostics and
commercially prepared IgG capture EIA by DIA.PRO, Italy.
Results: Of the 560 samples, anti HCV was detected in 31(5.54%) by ELISA,…
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The study was conducted to investigate the safety of combined extracts of Bryophyllum
pinnatum (family: Crassulaceae) and Aloe barbadensis (family: Xanthorrhoeaceae) in
rats. Forty rats were randomly selected and divided into four groups. Rats in groups I
were administered with placebo as the control animals, while rats in groups II, III and IV
were administered with aqueous extracts at 25mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 100mg/ml
respectively for 28 days. Five milliliter (5ml) of blood was collected from either the ocular
vein or…
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ABSTRACT
PURPOSE: PMTCT interventions, especially initiation of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has modified the
natural history of HIV infection by reducing both peripartal and neonatal HIV infections, but the pattern of the immunologic
responses of these pregnant women to HAART remains speculative. It is hoped from this study, to describe the pattern of
immunologic response of naïve, HIV positive pregnant women on their first initiation on HAART.
METHODS: This study described the pattern of CD4 changes observed in freshly…
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Abstract
Background: Previous reports showed lack of consensus on the possible etiology of coronary artery disease (CAD) between
HIV-treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HIV-infection in particular. The aim of this
study was to find out correlations of HIV-treatment and HIV-infection with CAD risk.
Method: One hundred and twenty (120) participants involving HIV-patients on treatment (n = 40), treatment-naïve (n =
40) and equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. The total cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Abstract: Atherogenic cardiovascular risk assessment is important in the
management of dyslipidaemia associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Generally, Castelli?s Risk Index (CRI), Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and
Atherogenic coefficient (AC) are becoming useful indices as risk predictors for
cardiovascular disease (CVD). We studied the importance of these indices in
identifying at-risk HIV individuals receiving treatment. Eighty (80) HIV-patients
comprising treatment (n=40) and treatment-naïve (n=40) groups with age- and sexmatched
were enrolled. Traditional lipid parameters {Total cholesterol (TC),
Triglycerol (TG),…
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Background: In the north central Nigeria, observed haemoglobin concentration is often
used to determine the packed cell volume of patients, especially by many laboratories
that cannot afford the cost of micro-haematocrit centrifuge.
Aim: The study was carried out to determine the accuracy of 3-fold haemoglobin
conversion to haematocrit level in anaemic conditions.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 580 symptomatic (febrile)
patients and 810 subclinically anaemic subjects attending some selected private medical
laboratories, hospitals and clinics in Kuje…
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ABSTRACT
Compliance of 21 private medical laboratories in Osun State with ethical and other professional was
assessed by the authors' pre and post inspection by the Medical Laboratory Science Council of Nigeria
(MLSCN). Laboratory environment, personnel, equipment and adherence to Standard Operating Procedures
(SOPs) were used as indicators and the results obtained were compared. Thirteen (62 %) was found to have
conformed to environmental specifications before the MLSCN's inspection. This rose to 84% and 89% a month
and 6 months…
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Aim: One third of HIV patients are co- infected with HCV. As HIV patients live longer this coinfection
and its complications such as liver cirrhosis, hepatic carcinoma, metabolic syndrome are
emerging as major manifestations of the disease that need to be dealt with promptly in order to
avoid a reduction of the positive effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on
HIV/AIDS introduced in 1996. Another system that could be affected by co-infection is the skeletal
system. It has been…
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Introduction
Medical laboratory science has been defined by the
Medical Laboratory Science Council of Nigeria
(MLSCN) Act 11 of 2003 as the practice involving
the analysis of human or animal tissues, body fluids,
excretions, production of biologicals, design and
fabrication of equipment for the purpose of medical
laboratory diagnosis, treatment and research1.
Quality practices in medical laboratory service are of
paramount importance in health care delivery


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The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of ABO Blood groups and haemolysins
(? and ß) in Osogbo metropolis. Seventeen thousands, nine hundred and thirty one subjects
(Age?18) who consented to donating blood for transfusion and/or blood group determination
were included in this study. About 5mls of blood were collected into plain bottles from each
subject. Cells and sera grouping were subsequently carried out after clot retraction. Blood
group O individuals have the highest frequency (53.6%) followed…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is an agent of Transfusion Transmissible Infection (TTI) which
serves as a threat to blood safety and sufficiency of blood and blood products supply.
Objectives: This study aimed at determining the distribution patterns of HCV among potential blood donors
in a private Blood Bank in Osogbo, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Over a period of 6 months, 290 consenting prospective blood donors were
recruited for this study by convenient sampling technique. Pre-test counseling was done,…
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Abstract
Background: HTLV type I/II is a blood borne infection that can be transmitted via blood
transfusion.
Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of human T – lymphotropic virus among blood donors
in Osogbo, Nigeria.
Methods: Diagnosis of Human T. Lymphotropic virus antigen was carried out on 372 serum
samples among blood donors who visited the blood bank/transfusion unit of Ladoke Akintola
University of Technology Teaching Hospital and Our Lady of Fatima Catholic Hospital, Osogbo
between January and July 2008 using…
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My role as a blood transfusion coordinator in a
rural new teaching hospital and distribution of
ABO and RHO blood groups among patients
attending Delta State University Teaching
Hospital, Oghara during the period of July 2010
to March 2011


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BACKGROUND
Drug-induced thrombocytopenia (DITP), which also includes
thrombocytopenia induced by beverages, foods, and herbal remedies, is
an important clinical problem for haematologists. Drug-induced
thrombocytopenia is often misdiagnosed as immune thrombocytopenic
purpura with resulting inappropriate treatment. Immune thrombocytopenic
purpura (ITP) is a clinical disorder that leads to easy bruising (purpura),
excessive bleeding or extravasation of blood from capillaries into skin and
mucous membranes (petechiae). The bleeding tendency is due to decreased
number of circulating platelets (thrombocytopenia). There is production of
antibodies…
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ABSTRACT
Background: There is continuous rise in haematology and haemato-oncology cases in Nigeria.
Unfortunately, there is inadequate number of haematologists to care for these rising cases despite
the high number of medical doctors being churned out by over twenty medical schools in Nigeria.
Object: The aim of this study is to find out the preference rate of Haematology among medical
students in a typical Nigerian medical school.
Methodology: Questionnaires were used to collect data from medical students who met the READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Abstract
Objective(s): The present study was designed to provide additional information on some hematological and
biochemical changes associated with blood transfusion in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients.
Materials and methods: A total of 86 subjects (aged between 20 and 40 years) were randomly studied. Among
these were 30 multi-transfused SCA (? 3 units of blood per year), 30 rarely transfused SCA (year) and 26 apparently healthy individuals. The blood samples collected in EDTA were used for packed cell
volume, haemoglobin…
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ABSTRACT
Background: The demand to study medicine in Nigeria is very high thereby putting lots of pressure
to the University authorities because of inadequate space and provision to accommodate the large
number of applicants.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the factors motivating students and influencing
their desire to study medicine and proffer solutions to reduce the population of applicants to
medical schools.
Methodology: Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information from 311 medical
students of Delta…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Blood transfusion is a very essential part of medical practice. However, blood and
blood component transfusions are associated with some adverse transfusion reactions. Some of
these reactions can lead to loss of patients’ lives and hence defeating the essence of blood usage
in saving lives.
Objectives: This study aims to establish those factors promoting and increasing the susceptibility
of patients for adverse transfusion reactions.
Methodology: Two-year records (July 2014-June 2016) of our patients reported to have blood
transfusion…
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Abstract
Background: Blood and blood components transfusion is a very important component of medical practice and
patients’care. However, this wonderful therapeutic tool is associated with some disadvantages namely adverse
transfusion reactions which in some cases lead to fatal consequences defeating the essence of its usage.
Objectives: This study aims to establish the modes of presentations (signs and symptoms) of blood transfusion
reactions among recipients of blood in Delsuth, Oghara.
Methodology: Records of our patients who were reported to have blood…
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Abstract
Introduction: Haematological malignancies (HM) are malignant disorders involving the haemopoietic system. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the development and evolution of these disorders. To measure total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with HM and to determine if any, the relationship between TAC and total lipid in these patients.
Presentation of the case: This is a multicentre cross sectional study. Patients were sampled with self administered questionnaire that documented their biodata and the various types of haematological malignancies they…
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Abstract
Background: Sickle cell disease is a chronic debilitating condition. Nigeria has the largest pool of the sickle
cell gene in the world. Three to five million people are affected in Nigeria. Knowledge of the disease may help
in reducing the national prevalence.
Objective: To determine the level of awareness of sickle cell disease in a typical rural community of Delta State.
Method: Structured researcher-administered questionnaires were used to collect information from residents of
Akoku-Uno community of Delta state.
Resuts:…
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Abstract
Background: South-South geopolitical region of Nigeria is a region rich with oil exploration activities. The people in this region
are exposed to petroleum products which is one of the factors associated with leukaemia. There are limited data on leukaemia
among these people. This study sought to document the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with leukaemia from
this region. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-three (163) case notes of patients from this region with the diagnosis
of leukaemia…
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Summary
Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) complications namely stroke, osteomyelitis, retinopathy,
pulmonary embolism, renal failure, chronic leg ulcers, cholelithiasis, acute chest syndrome,
avascular necrosis (AVN) of the head of femur, and others, affect virtually all systems of the
body. The prevalence and pattern of the complications of this disorder in south-south Nigeria
had not been documented. The objective of the study was to detect and analyze frequency of
occurrence of the different types of complications seen in adult SCA patients in…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Unlike Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) whose genetic basis (the Philadelphia
chromosome), has become a household name, that of Polycythaemia Vera and other non-leukemic
myeloproliferative diseases has not equally received wide publicity.
Aim: The aim of this paper is to review and highlight the role of JAK2 mutation in Polycythaemia Vera,
Primary Myelofibrosis and Essential Thrombocythaemia.
Methods: Literature on the subject was reviewed using manual library search, articles in journals, internet
search and conference abstracts.
Results: JAK2 mutation plays…
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IntrOduction
Historically, the first case of sickle cell disease
(SCD) was reported in 1910 by a Dental Surgeon
who made blood films of one of his patients and
demonstrated red blood cells having a "slender
sickle shape' ,.1 The history of sickle cell anaemia is
a very good reminder of the importance of
supportive role of the laboratory to clinical diagnosis
and research'". The observation that sickle cell trait
may have a survival advantage against malaria was
based on the…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Disseminated intravascular coagulation is an acquired acute, subacute or chronic
coagulation or thrombohaemorrhagic disorder characterized by formation of microthrombi, consumption
of coagulation factors/platelets, activation of fibrinolytic system and haemorrhage. It occurs as a
secondary complication to a variety of disorders and infectious diseases but its occurrence in tuberculosis
is rare and has not been reported.
Objective: The aims of this paper are to present a case of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
complicated by Acute Renal Failure in a patient…
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Summary
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder.
characterized by the presence of Philadelphia chromosome and affects a good number of
Africans and African-American population. The aim of this review is to highlight the
aetiophysiology, clinical/laboratory characteristics and treatment options, especially the new
and emerging treatment modalities of CML. The review was sourced mainly from internet
(pubmed). Relevant Oncology journals and textbooks of haematology were also consulted.
There are reported cases of relapse/resistance to imatinib which is the current…
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Abstract
Background: Churg Strauss syndrome is a medical
COIId-tionof unknoVin aetiology characterized by as/hma,
eosinophilia and finally vasculitis involving small vessels
in thelimbs and nasal sinuses aoo the lungs. The purpose
of this Tevie is to highlight the natural history of this
condifon, the pathogenesis, clinical features and
lteatmenl modalities available and the prognosis.
Methods: Literature on the subJect Vias reviewed using
manuallibrary search. articles injoumals, internet search
andconference abstracts. .
Result Churg Strauss syndrome has been reported to
be…
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ABSTRACT
Background/Objective: In a rapidly developing world where conflicts are inevitable and accidents
and other forms of trauma are constantly encountered there is an increased need for blood transfusion
to keep victims ofthese events alive. As the need for blood increases, there is a corresponding decrease
in the amount of blood available for transfusion due to increased demand and a falling donor pool. In
addition, there are people who due to religious reasons abhor blood transfusion. The emergence ofthe
HIV…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic has become a major global
public health problem, the brunt of which is largely borne by communities in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Objectives: The aim ofthis review is to highlight and bring to the fore the peripheral blood and bone
marrow changes ofHIV and AIDS because many Hlv-infected persons may present with these changes
as more patients with this disease survive longer because oftherapy.
Methods: The review was sourced mainly by pubmed search using the…
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AdescriPtive retrospctive study of the
pattern of children admitted between
ugust 2002 and January 2005
inclusive to the department of Paediatrics of
Central Hospital Ughelli, an urban community
in the oil rich Niger-Delta region of Nigeria was
done. Children between 2 months and 3 years
constituted 64.1% of the total admissions and
79% of those with severe anaemia that required
transfusion. The neonatal admissions was just
0.3% of the total admissions but the neonatal
transfusion was O.7% of the total…
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ABSTRACT
Background: The higher prevalence of blood group 0 places more demand on it when compared
to other blood groups in developing countries. Group 0 blood is usually abused in hospitals with
the erroneous belief that individuals with blood group 0 are universal donors. Haemolysins are
IgG antibodies seen particularly in blood group 0 subjects and their demonstration in vitro helps
detect dangerous blood group 0 donors whenever such blood is to be given to non-O individuals.
Objective: The aims…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Idiopathic Myelofibrosis is a non-leukemic myeloproliferative disorder
characterized by generalized fibrosis of the bone marrow in association with
extramedullary haematopoiesis mainly in the spleen and liver. Prominent among its
laboratory features are the presence of tear drop red blood cells (dacryocytes) and
immature red blood and white cells (leukoerythroblasts) in the peripheral blood film.
Aim: The objectives of this paper are to present a case of Idiopathic Myelofibrosis without
the usual peripheral blood film picture and also to…
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Abstract
Background: Petroleum exploration has been associated with diverse health problems in many parts of
the world. There are reports of increased incidences ofhaematological malignancies in the areas where
petroleum exploration is taking place. Petroleum exploration and exploitation has been ongoing in many
countries and people living in these areas have borne the brunt ofthe environmental and health devastation
taking place and efforts are not made to educate these people ofthe hazards they are encountering
Objective: The aim of this…
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SUMMARY
Objective: To determine the incidence and soclodemographic factors associated with
various adult leukaemia subtypes in a tertiary hospital in, Nigeria.
Patients and Methods: A total of 190 patients with a diagnosis of leukaemia seen OVf:T a
12-year period (1990.2002) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria were
studied. They were analyzed in the context of gender, marital status, geographical abode.
educational and occupational status,
Results: There were 70 males and 120 females with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.7. READ MORE Download Staff Profile


SUMMARY
The case of a 54-year eld woman who never
knew she had sickle cell anaemia until she
presented with a two week history of
weakness, fever.loss of appetite. nausea, easy
fatiquability and upper abdominal pains is
presented. She was a known hypertensive and
peptic ulcer disease prior to presentation. Her
Peripheral blood film and haemglobin
electrophoresis confirmed diagnosis of sickle
cell anaemia. It is highlighted that while
diagnosis commonly occurs in childhood,
symptomatology of the disease can occur in READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Background: The blood of a pregnant
woman is quite unique with a lot of interesting
challenges. In non-pregnant women, certain
alterations in haematopoeitic systems call for
therapeutic interventions. In the state of
pregnancy, however, some of such changes
are regarded harmless because of reversal to
non-pregnant values after delivery. On the
other hand, management of some bloodrelated
pathologies in pregnancy puts the
healthcare provider at his/her wits end
because of the consideration of possible
effect(s) of any treatment modality on…
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Background: Blood saves lives only when
the blood itself is safe. The safety of blood
depends on the quality of its donor and these
donors can be categorized into commercial,
replacement and voluntary blood donors.
Aim and Objective: The aim of this study
was to determine the socio-demographic
factors and categories of blood donors in
Warri, Southern Nigeria.
Materials and Methods:A Semi-structured
self-administered questionnaire was used to
collect all necessary information from blood
donors.
Results: A total of 500 blood…
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Background: The study was conceived to
assess the seroprevalence of human
immunodeficiency virus among blood donors
living in Warri South South region of Nigeria.
The importance ofthis study is to highlight the
prevalence of HIV in different age groups of
blood donors.
Methods: This was a descriptive analysis of
the records ofa total of3518 blood donors for
the year 2002 to ascertain the age distribution
and the sero-positivity for the human
immunodeficiency virus. Descriptive
statistics was used to present the…
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Abstract
Background: The increased need of safe
blood and blood products and their
unavailability in hospitals remain a formidable
challenge faced by healthcare providers in
developing countries such as Nigeria.
Airn:To determine the level of awareness of
blood donation among tertiary institution
undergraduates in an urban setting of
Southern Nigeria.
Methodology: Semi-structured questionnaire
was used to collect information from
undergraduates of the University of Benin
and Delta State University both in southern
Nigeria. Data analysis was done using SPSS
software…
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Abstract
Background: Carbon monoxide is a tastelessvodourless, colourless, non-irritating, and
poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of organic materials. It is particularly
dangerous as it cannot be detected by man's natural sense organs. There is hardly a
month without one or two newspaper reports of death attributed to carbon monoxide
poisoning.
Objective: To determine the students' knowledge about carbon monoxide poisoning, and
their ability to identify victims suspected of suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning.
Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was…
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Abstract
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus/HfV) and Hepatitis B Virus(HBV)
infections are global viral diseases with various seroprevalence rates in different parts of
the world. They share similar modes of transmission and are very important in
Transfusion Medicine.
Aim/Objective: To determine the level of awareness and practice of HIV and Hepatitis B
virus screening among Niger-Delta residents.
Methodology: Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from
residents in Benin and Warri towns of southern Nigeria.
Results: A total of 396 people…
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Summary
Solitary plasmacytomas are defined as proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells without
evidence of significant bone-marrow plasma-cell infiltration. They are classified
according to location into solitary plasmacytoma of bone if they occur in bone, and
extramedullary plasmacytoma if they arise in soft tissues. They are more frequent in
males than females and have a peak incidence in the fifth and sixth decade of life.
Solitary plasmacytoma accounts for about 5% of plasma cell tumours. More than 80% of
extramedullary plasmacytoma…
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Abstract
Background: Pre-marital screening programme is aimed at reducing the incidence of
hereditary and sexually transmitted diseases in the society. The study was carried out to
determine the types of tests done by churches in Oredo LOA, Benin City.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among all the 140 churches
in Ihogbe and Ogbe quarters in Oredo LOA of Benin-City, Nigeria.
Result: Out of a total of 140 churches studied through their church leaders, all of them
requested…
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ABSTRACT
Leucocytosis, marked increase in the number of white blood cells (WBC) is a known physiological
response to trauma. In recent times, several studies have asserted the absence of this response in
Africans. In view of this, current study investigated the existence of, and prognostic implications of
post-traumatic leucocytosis amongst adult Nigerians with acute musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma. Two
hundred and twenty three (223) adult male and females (MSK traumatized) and fifty apparently
healthy volunteers (adults) were ethically recruited from the…
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Background: Moringa oleifera, otherwise referred to as a miracle tree, has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases. Moringa has
been the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there has been scant information on its sub?acute effect on the kidneys. This work
was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the liver and lungs of adult Wistar rats. Twenty?eight adult
healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into four groups…
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Background: Moringa oleifera, otherwise referred to as a miracle tree, has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases. Moringa has
been the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there has been scant information on its sub?acute effect on the kidneys. This work
was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the liver and lungs of adult Wistar rats. Twenty?eight adult
healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into four groups…
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Background: Moringa oleifera, otherwise referred to as a miracle tree, has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases. Moringa has
been the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there has been scant information on its sub?acute effect on the kidneys. This work
was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the liver and lungs of adult Wistar rats. Twenty?eight adult
healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into four groups…
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Democracy has been conceptualized in different forms.  It has the core characteristic which is generally accepted amongst others as, the devolution and liberalization of the electoral system.  The issue of accommodating women in a democratic system has been on the front burner.  Globalization theory argues that economic decentralization is expected to encourage and stimulate the devolution of political power and a decentralized form of politics in which the state will yield political space to civil society.  In spite…
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Arguments supporting privatization of land as articulated by its advocate’s suggest that it is a developmental paradigm necessary for rural development.  Privatization of land as a developmental strategy has intensified the integration of countries into the global system encouraging capital and investment flow into agricultural sector.  Hence, the current wave of privatization of land in rural communities of Kwara State has introduced new dimension on land as a commodity resulting to massive land grab.  Given the constraint which…
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The study examined contemporary challenges to state sovereignty and the idea of a waning sovereignty.  The study analyzed the debate on the downsizing of the principle of sovereignty as a result of the challenges posed by globalization.  Many have argued that there are political, economic, and social forces that are working to breakdown the importance and authority of states and, are creating pressures to move the world towards a much higher degree of integration.  Proponents of this vies…
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Politics provides the opportunity for participation in the administration and management of a country.  The essence is that, if elected, one is then opportuned to be a part of the core political process.  This study attempts to highlight the extent of women participation in politics and their contributions to women empowerment and by extension national development in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic.  The study while acknowledging an improvement in terms of the number of women in elective and non-elective positions…
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Globalisation is reflected in the policies of liberalization, privatization and deregulation.  These policies which are imbedded in the neo-liberal economic tradition are seen as welfarist ideology that would lead to development; hence increase the living conditions of the peoples.  It is further argued that the implementation of glabalisation policies in developing countries while integrating all countries into the global economy is a veritable solution to the economic growth.  An overlooked aspect of the above claim is that globalization…
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The study examined the extent to which globalization has eroded the sovereignty and independence of the Nigerian state via-a-via the formulation and implementation of policies that affect its citizen.  Using secondary source of data for its analysis, the study reveals that globalization policies introduced a number of material developments that undercut Nigeria’s state sovereignty.  Hence the impact of globalization is the fact that the Nigeria state is unable to control these material developments because globalization policies and decisions…
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ABSTRACT
Parasitosis is a major health problem in Nigeria with 50% prevalence among urban dwellers and 68% prevalence
among rural population. Serum IgE differs with allergy and chronicity of infection but information on IgE levels in
humans with different classes of parasites is scarce. Stool and blood specimens collected from apparently healthy,
asymptomatic, school children were examined for ova, cysts and larvae of intestinal parasites and for trophozoites
of Plasmodium species respectively. Serum IgE level was measured by ELISA method…
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Background: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) continues to be associated with schizophrenia,
but there is the dearth of information on the relationship between the severity of
schizophrenia and plasma levels of vitamin D. This study, therefore, determined the
plasma levels of vitamin D in different severity groups of schizophrenia.
Materials and methods: Plasma level of vitamin D was determined in 60 patients with
schizophrenia and 30 apparently healthy individuals who served as controls. Patients
with schizophrenia were classified into mildly ill,…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Due to the clinical benefits of metformin, its associated side
effects such as vitamin B12 deficiency are usually overlooked and rarely
investigated.
Objective: This study was carried out to determine the serum level of vitamin
B12 in Nigerian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on metformin.
Methods: Serum vitamin B12 level was determined using high performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 81 T2DM patients who have been on
metformin for 5 years or more. Vitamin B12 deficiency was…
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Abstract
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are known to cause abnormal thyroid
function. There is little information on whether HIV infection aggravates alteration of thyroid function in patients with MDRTB.
Objectives: This study was carried out to determine if HIV co-infection alters serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients with MDR-TB patients and to find out the frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction
before the commencement of MDR-TB therapy.
Methods: This…
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Abstract
Objective: This study assessed the diagnostic performance and prognostic properties of C-reactive protein (CRP), copeptin
and cortisol in individuals with sickle cell anaemia (SCA).
Design: Prospective case-control study
Methods: Sixty consecutive SCA subjects (18–40 years) comprising 30 subjects in the steady state and 30 subjects in vasoocclusive
crisis (VOC) were recruited into this study. Thirty (30) apparently healthy individuals with HbAA genotype served
as controls. ELISA was used for the determination of serum levels of copeptin, CRP and cortisol.…
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ABSTRACT
Aim: To provide information on the usefulness of salivary
immunoglobulin classes in the diagnosis of periodontitis.
Materials and methods: About 5 ml of unstimulated saliva was
collected from 25 newly diagnosed subjects with periodontitis and
21 sex/age-matched apparently healthy individuals into plain
sample bottles. The samples were collected between 9 am and
11 am at least, 1 hour after eating or washing of mouth and levels
of salivary immunoglobulin classes (IgA, IgG, IgE and IgM) were
determined using enzyme-linked…
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Summary: It is well known that individuals with SCA undergo constant physiological stress even, in steady state. However, there is little information on the relationship between the severity of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and serum levels of biomarkers of stress. This study therefore determined the serum levels of copeptin, cortisol and CRP in adults with SCA in different severity groups. Sixty adults with sickle cell anaemia in steady state (27.1±6.3 years) and in vaso-occlusive crisis (24.9±4.9 years) were recruited into…
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ABSTRACT
Background: Abnormal lipid homeostasis has been reported in sickle cell anaemia (SCA)
as well as in other haematological disorders. However, there is little information on the lipid
profile of SCA subjects in vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). This study determined the lipid profile
of adult SCA subjects in VOC and in steady state (SSCA). Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight
(58) adults with HbSS (30 in steady state and 28 in vaso-occlusive crisis) and 24 age-matched
healthy individuals with HbAA genotype were recruited…
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Abstract: Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MS) increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes (DM2) and cardiovascular
diseases (CVD) and it is thought to be prevalent in Nigeria. This study aims at determining the prevalence of MS and its component risk
factors among apparently healthy traders in a local market in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: 534 apparently healthy traders from a local
market in Bodija, Ibadan, Nigeria aged (18–105) years with neither DM2 nor CVD were participants of a cohort study on risk READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
The incorporation of nutritional screening and comprehensive assessments of oxidative stress is increasingly recognised as imperative in the development of standards for quality care in oncology. This study evaluated the levels of nitric oxide (NO), some essential trace metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, and Se), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) in twenty five (25) patients with acute leukaemia and 25 apparently healthy controls. The mean levels of plasma Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe) and Selenium (Se) were not significantly…
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Aim: To provide information on the susceptibility of cigarette smokers to oral diseases. This was
achieved by assessing the degree of salivary oxidative stress markers in smokers with or without
periodontitis. We measured salivary concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen
peroxide (H2O2), myeloperoxidase (MPx) activity, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase
(SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx
activities) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration.
Materials and Methods: About 5 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected into plain bottles from…
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Background: The effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on the immune system is well documented however; its
impact on the nutritional and immunological qualities of the breast milk is scarce. Aim: Levels of some essential trace metals,
albumin and antioxidant status in the plasma and breast milk of Nigerian HIV?infected lactating mothers were determined.
Materials and Methods: Essential trace metals and total antioxidant potential were measured using spectrophotometric method
while albumin was measured using single radial immunodiffusion technique. Results: Only…
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Abstract: Background: Insulin resistance and metabolic alteration continue to
be essential features of major mental health disorders (MMHD) with poorly
understood and multifaceted mechanisms. This study was carried out to provide
information on insulin resistance, beta-cell function, metabolic clearance rate of
glucose and their possible interplay with duration of antipsychotic use in patients
with major mental health disorders.


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Abstract
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited chronic hematological disorder, with inflammatory responses arising from
different pathways. Information is scarce about the levels of acute?phase reactants and essentials trace elements in HbSS Nigerian
children. Understanding of these will further elucidate the pathophysiology of SCD, which may assist in the proper management
of this condition in the pediatric population.
Aim: To measure the levels of acute?phase reactants (C?reactive protein [CRP], C1q, C4, ferritin and transferrin), trace elements
(Fe, Zn,…
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Abstract
Background: Reports have clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of organophosphate pesticides (Op)
toxicity. However, there is dearth of information on which group of the farm workers is more at risk of Op?induced oxidative
stress. Aim: This study determined serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx),
reduced glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and serum activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
in farm workers exposed to Op. Subjects and Methods: A total of…
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Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a 12-month dietary modification on indices of inflammation and pro-thrombosis
in adults with metabolic syndrome (MS).
Materials and methods: This longitudinal study involved 252 adults with MS recruited from the Bodija market, Ibadan and its
environs. Participants were placed on 20%, 30% and 50% calories obtained from protein, total fat and carbohydrate respectively
and were followed up monthly for 12 months. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured using standard methods. Fasting
plasma glucose…
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Background: Suscep???? bility of sickle cell disease subjects to various infec???? ous agents is on the increase, but informa???? on rela???? ng SCD to allergic condi???? on
is scarce. Hence, assessment of immunoglobulin status in SCD children may provide useful informa???? on to improve management of SCD children.
Objec???? ves: To determine the levels of immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE) in Nigerian HbSS children below 5 years of age compared
with sex- and age-matched HbAA children.
Materials and…
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ABSTRACT
Acute leukaemia are usually rapidly progressive with death often occurring in a few weeks to a few months in untreated patients as a result of abnormal hematopoietic function as well as impaired immune response. The risk of relapse which remains in 20% of patients in remission calls for more research on acute leukaemia. This study therefore, evaluated the plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and immunoglobulin classes (IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE) in twenty-five (25) patients…
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Metabolic syndrome (MS) amplifies hypertension (HTN) associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). MS
components and other CVD risk measures were investigated in different stages of hypertension. 534 apparently healthy Nigerian
traders aged 18–105 years were participants of a cohort study.The International Diabetes Federation (2005) and the National High
Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee criteria were used for MS and HTN classifications, respectively.
Anthropometric indices were obtained by standard methods. Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol…
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This study evaluated the effect of vitamins
with antioxidant activity on the effect of
Dichlorvos (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate),
an organophosphorus compound used
in pest control on mammalian organs.
Literature is scanty on the histopathological
effects of inhalationally administered dichlorvos,
especially of the formulations used in
Nigeria. The objective of the study is to evaluate
these effects on vital organs, with a view
to proffering solutions to ameliorate the
effects.
Fifty Wistar male rats were divided into 10
groups of…
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Abstract
B A C K G R O U N D The prevalence of helminth infection, which is known to affect nutritional status of
the host, varies with age. The complex interplay between ages, nutrient requirements, and infection
necessitated the need to recommend micronutrient supplementation during helminth infection among
different age groups.
O B J E C T I V E The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of alteration in selected micronutrients
in pregnant women and…
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ABSTRACT
Background: There is little information on the possible impact of drugs used in the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis
(MDR-TB) on glycaemic levels. This study therefore assessed changes in glycated haemoglobin levels in patients with MDR-TB.
Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study involved 21 MDR-TB patients who were followed up for 6 months. Glycated
haemoglobin (HbA1c) level of each patient was determined before the commencement of MDR-TB drug regimen and at 2, 4 and 6
months post treatment as…
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Abstract
Presently, there is the dearth of information on the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on haematological parameters in patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the levels of selected haematological parameters in MDR-TB patients with or without HIV co-infection before the commencement of MDR-TB therapy. Complete blood count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined using an automated haematology analyzer and Westergreen method respectively in 115 patients with MDR-TB. Statistical…
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GLYCAEMIC RESPONSEAND INSULINE INDEX IN APPERENTLY HEALTHY MALE ADULTSFOLLOWING INGESTION OF SOME NIGERIAN MEALS  2018/2019


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ABSTRACT
Experimental studies have shown numerous health disorders associated with occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides but evidence of impaired immune functions by pesticides in humans is scarce. This study determined complete blood count (CBC), serum immunoglobulin classes (IgE, IgA, IgM, IgG),acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and skin sensitivity prick test to common environmental allergens in 60 farm workers (30 pesticide applicators and 30 farmers) exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides compared with30 apparently healthy, non-exposed workers. Serum AChE activity, mean PCV level, total…
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Background
An understanding of the interplay between mental illnesses and metabolic
disorders is crucial. At present, in Nigeria, studies on coexistence of these
conditions are scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the
prevalence of obesity, metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolic
syndrome (MS) in adults with major mental illnesses.
Materials and methods
One hundred and twenty four patients with schizophrenia, depression and bipolar
disorder were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Blood pressure and
anthropometric indices were obtained…
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Aim: To assess the prevalent components of metabolic syndrome (MSC) and their
related determinants of lipid metabolism in the Nigerian for early diagnosis, prevention
Original Research Article
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 4(7): 740-752, 2014
741
and management of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and its associated diseases.
Study Design: Cohort study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan between March and August 2010.
Methodology: 534 apparently healthy Nigerian traders…
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Abstract
B A C K G R O U N D Helminth infection is an important health challenge. Because of modulation of the
immune response toward T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, the immunologic interplay that manifest during the
coexistence of helminth infection with other conditions is still poorly understood.
O B J E C T I V E This study determined the pattern of alteration in selected cytokines and immunoglobulin
E (IgE) in pregnant women, preschool aged children, and school-aged children…
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ABSTRACT
Undernourishment in HIV infected individuals exacerbates immunosuppression, acceleration of HIV replication and CD4 + T cell depletion. The production of human milk (lactogenesis) is dependent on factors in the blood therefore deranged blood parameters in HIV patients are expected to reflect in the components of breast milk. Study on effects of HIV infection on nutritional components of breast milk and plasma is scarce. This study assessed the impact which HIV infection might have on the nutritional quality of human…
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ABSTRACT
Despite the high mortality and morbidity associated with hyperglycemic emergencies (HEs), reliable biological
markers that could predict the severity and prognosis are largely unavailable. This study therefore, assessed the
performance of copeptin in predicting the severity and prognosis of HEs. Sixty patients with HEs [27 with diabetes
ketoacidosis (DKA) and 33 with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS)] were recruited into this cross-sectional
study. Serum copeptin was determined using ELISA. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was used to grade the severity of READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
Dichlorvos is an organophosphate insecticide used indiscriminately in Nigeria in various insecticide formulations
due to its cheap production, accessibility, efficacy and affordability. Reactive oxygen species formation has been
implicated in the mechanism of dichlorvos toxicity. Reports on antioxidant-prooxidant status in human users of
dichlorvos are scarce and the few available reports are conflicting. 35 wistar rats were divided into 7 groups of 5
rats per group as follows; unexposed group, six groups exposed to dichlorvos for 1week, 2weeks, 3weeks,…
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