Department Of Chemical Engineering Journals


Abstract.

The hydrocarbon content of Jatropha curcas seed oil obtained from Oleh Community in Delta State, NIFOR farm in Edo State and Ikabigbo in Edo State represented as samples X, Y and Z respectively were investigated using Gas Chromatography with flame ionization detector. The predominant alkanes found in the oil samples are n-Eicosane (C20H42) and n-Docosane (C22H46), while the major polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon found in the oil samples is chrysene. Sample X has the highest percentage of n-Eicosane (65.72%), sample Y has 35.56%…
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ABSTRACT
The physico-chemical properties of wastewater effluent from the plants of a brewering industry in Nigeria have been analyzed. The lead ions removal capacity of Granular activated carbon from animal horns and its comparison with commercial granulated activated carbon (GAC) was studied. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out for the adsorption of Pb2+. The equilibrium sorption data fitted well the Freundlich model. The experimental data, when applied to the first and second-order kinetic models, followed both kinetic models with r?2; = 0.898 for…
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ABSTRACT
The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water using Aspergillus niger and varying concentrations of sodium nitrate was investigated in this study. Five samples of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water innoculated with A. niger containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 M NaNO3(aq) and the control was monitored for parameters such as Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), pH and Turbidity over a period of forty nine days. The results obtained showed that the sample remediated with 0.4M NaNO3 (aq) showed the greatest THC…
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ABSTRACT
This paper examines the potentials of Bioenergy and Biofuels Technology Development in Nigeria. Biomass conversion technologies may be biological (fermentation of sugars to ethanol; anaerobic digestion of biomass for biogas), chemical (trans-etherification of lipids to biodiesel, or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of bio-syngas to synthetic hydrocarbon fuels); or thermal (biomass gasification to bio-syngas for further processing, or pyrolysis); and a combination of some of, or all, the processes (biomass gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for the production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels with possibilities for power generation; biomass…
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ABSTRACT
The use of an alternative technique as a management strategy for the decontamination of hydrocarbonbased pollution in soil has been advanced in this work. The study investigated the degradation of anthracene, a three-ringed benzene derivative, in clay soil at ambient conditions under the influence of hydrophilic compound (carbon), thermally activated at temperatures of 300, 500, 700 and 900oC. The soil (500 g) was impacted with 1:1 of the contaminant anthracene and activated carbon from groundnut shell in a water medium at a flow rate…
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ABSTARCT
Heavy metals discharged into the environment from various industries constitute one of the major causes of water and soil pollution. Conventional methods for the removal of heavy metals from waste waters are often cost prohibitive. These constraints have caused the search for alternative technologies for metal sequestering to cost-effective environmentally acceptable levels. One of the exploitations is the use of biomaterials. The results obtained after contacting for 120 min showed that sour sop seeds achieved the removal of 77.6, 68.5, 56.4and 40.6% for Cu2+…
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ABSTRACT
The shelf life of vegetable oils in food uses and their applicability in industrial situations is greatly dependent on their oxidative stabilities. Methods of improving oxidative stability values currently available include genetic modifications, compositional changes via chemical means, as well as the inhibition of oxidation by means of substances known as antioxidants. This paper reviews the properties of vegetable oils which predispose them to auto oxidation reactions, explores the nature and mechanisms of the operation of antioxidants in brief, and finally summarizes current research…
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ABSTRACT
The present study was undertaken to compare the adsorption efficiency of activated carbon prepared from animal horns (AHC), which is both a waste and a pollutant and a commercial activated carbon (CAC) with respect to uptake of the organic components responsible for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of industrial wastewater. The adsorption process was examined in terms of its equilibria and its kinetics. The effect of pH, contact time and adsorbent dose were investigated. The most effective pH was found to be 5 for…
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ABSTRACT
The uses of the various kinds of mineral oils in various industrial situations have made them an indispensable ingredient of the industrialization and development that has characterized the past century. Recent focus on health, safety and the preservation of the environment has turned the searchlight to the effects of mineral oils on the environment when they are accidentally spilled, or intentionally disposed of. Biodegradation, which provides an indication of the persistence of a
particular substance in the environment, is the yardstick for assessing…
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ABSTARCT
Vegetable oils has become more attractive recently because of its economical benefits as they are used as components in many manufactured products and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. The determination of the minor components is of great importance in establishing the oil quality and their genuineness. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the constituents is done by gas chromatography of compounds or their derivatives. High precision in the gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters is possible with careful…
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ABSTARCT
Heavy metals released by a number of industrial processes are major pollutants in marine, ground, industrial and even treated wastewaters. Some conventional methods of treatment, generate toxic sludge, hence the study of biomaterials as adsorbents. The residual metallic ion concentrations were determined. The results obtained after contacting for 120 min showed that Chrysophyllum albidum seeds achieved the percent removal of 76.2, 63.0, 56.4 and 42.3 for Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ ions respectively. The percent removal of Ni2+ ions was 66.5 with an effective…
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Abstract

Sponge-gourds, the fruit of Luffa cylindrica, are widely used throughout the world. It is an annual climbing crop which produces fruit containing fibrous vascular system. Produced water is any water that is present in a reservoir with the hydrocarbon resource and is produced to the surface with the crude oil or natural gas. The residual metallic ion concentrations were determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The physicochemical properties of Produced water before discharge or reinjection into the waterways and reservoir and after treatment…
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ABSTRACT
Sponge-gourds, the fruit of Luffa cylindrica, are widely used throughout the world. It is an annual climbing crop which produces fruit containing fibrous vascular system. It is a summer season vegetable. At the moment, from the results of studies carried out on this wonder crop, it encourages the commercial cultivation of the crop because of its increasing economic importance. The objective of this review is to show the potentialities of this crop that is virtually found around the globe. Areas such as agriculture, medicine,…
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ABSTRACT
The role of Aspergillus niger (fungus) and the use of 0.2 M sodium nitrate and 0.2 M sodium nitrite as nutrients on the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water were investigated in this study. 2 samples of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water each had 0.2 M NaNO3 (aq) and 0.2 M NaNO2 (aq) and A. niger added and a control was monitored over a period of 49 days for physicochemical parameters such as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) and pH as indicators…
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Abstract
Hura crepitans seeds (HCS) from H. crepitans tree were collected and extracted by mechanical screw press at a constant pressure of 25 N/m2. A study in terms of proximate, elemental and fatty acid contents of the oil was investigated using standard analytical techniques. The results were as follows acid value 8.49 mg·KOH/g, flash point 249°C, cloud point 11°C, pour point -6°C, density 919.38 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity 59.88 Cst, Sulphur 0.0174%, water and residue 2.686%, brownish colouration, free fatty acid…
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ABSTARCT
Crude groundnut oil was obtained by solvent extraction from groundnut seeds and refined. The crude and refined oils were then analyzed. The results obtained show that the acid value decreased from 2.890 to 0.420 mg/KOH. Free fatty acid decrease after refining from 2.82 to 2.02%; phospholipids decreased from 23.11 to 5.53%; copper content decreased from 0.37 to 0.0361% and iron decreased from 3.98 to 0.31%. These can be viewed as an improvement in the quality of the oil after refining. Refining did not have…
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Introduction
Environmental pollution due to the discharge of heavy metals from various industries, including metal plating, mining, painting and agricultural sources such as fertilizers and fungicidal sprays are causing significant concern because of their toxicity and threat to human life, especially when tolerance levels are exceeded (Gupta et al., 2009). The species with the most toxicological relevance found in the industrial effluents are the heavy metals. These species are bio-accumulative and not biodegradable over time (Abdel-Ghani et al., 2009).


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Abstract
The biosorption of copper (II) ions onto Luffa cylindrica was investigated. Luffa cylindrica, a biomaterial with wide distribution particularly in the tropical world, is characterized with the surface area, chemical bonds, bulk density, pore size distribution, microstructures, composition, morphology and elemental composition which are determined. Biosorption studies were carried out with varying dosage and the experimental data obtained were fitted to Pseudo-Second order kinetic model. The regression value obtained from the various doses studies ranged from 0.991 to 0.999.…
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ABSTRACT:

Nut drying as a unit operation is cost intensive and requires energy intensity to achieve moisture content that would enhance effective nut cracking to yield whole kernels. Small Scale farmers mostly in the rural areas primarily employ open air drying method; as they are handicap with capital, technique and skill involved in modern methods of drying and determination of desired end moisture content. To develop cheap and easy approach in estimating any desired end moisture content; this…
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ABSTRACT
Sustainable energy management has become a high priority in Nigeria, as well as in many countries around the world. The majority of our energy stock comes from non-renewable fossil fuels, which are currently dwindling. Biofuels are one of the most promising solutions being researched to address this urgent problem. In particular, using transesterified Hura crepitans seed oil appears to be a promising method of producing biofuels, due to the availability of Hura crepitans trees in Nigeria, and the fact…
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This publication highlights the investigation carried out on biodiesel oil seed crops farming.
The main focus of this write-up is on the net energy balance of biodiesel compared to other
fuels and the benefits of biodiesel oilseed crops. Other issues considered are the problems
and prospects of biodiesel oilseed crops farming as well as the oil content and the
kilogramme oil yield per hectare


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The purpose of this paper is to present a report on the characterization of crude glycerol derived
from biodiesel processed from cashew, melon and rubber seed oils. Crude glycerol is a coproduct
from biodiesel production. To make the crude glycerol economically useful, it is
imperative to characterize it. Investigative tests were carried out on the vegetable oils and on
the crude glycerol that were separated from the biodiesel fuels with a separating funnel. The
fatty acid profile was obtained using…
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Over the years, the use of domestic cleansers which increased cleaned, healthy and sanitized
environment has become vast and enormous in the society at large, as such, the need for products
with high cleansing power has become inevitable and the order of the day. This study focused
mainly on the production of scouring domestic powder with high cleansing soap properties,
capable of meeting with specifications, it is basically composed of a fatty acid, an alkaline
product and an abrasive agent,…
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This research work produced adhesive that could adequately be utilized by the wood and paper
industry. From the analysis, it is observed that working properties of the wood adhesives
produced fall within standard values. The wood adhesives are cheap and it is equally known as
water resistance adhesive because it cannot be separated by water. Most of the raw materials
were sourced locally. Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) is the major component and contributes more of
the adhesive composition. Wood adhesives have…
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Polymer catalyst for biodiesel production was developed and the catalytic activity dependence on preparation
condition, ranging from adsorbed radiation dose, reaction temperature and retention time were investigated in
this study. The catalyst was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene
onto a polyethylene substrate followed by amination with trimethylamine and was further treated with sodium
hydroxide solution. Gamma radiation was directed at a constant rate of 20kGy/hr on four different samples of
polyethylene substrates at different exposure times ranging from…
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Nigeria is a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). That
not withstanding it is an importer of refined petroleum products. This paper explores the
development of small-scale modular private refineries and large-scale conventional
private refineries. Some of the major problems encountered in the process of developing
private refineries in Nigeria were discussed. These are government regulation of refined
petroleum product prices, low profit margin in a regulated economy, hostile environment,
lack of funds and lack of crude…
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The oil and gas industry is an essential pillar of the nation’s economy. The challenges in
the industry can be solved through public private partnership. Pipeline vandalism,
frequent changes in national oil and gas company management and its incoherent policy,
oil bunkering, insurgency, fluctuating crude oil prices, business joint venture and decay
of infrastructures, gas flaring and gas pricing were identified as the key problems. The
solutions are: The Federal Government should develop national plan for critical
infrastructure. The pipelines…
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Nigeria is a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
That not withstanding it is an importer of refined petroleum products. This paper
explores the development of small-scale modular private refineries and large-scale
conventional private refineries. Some of the major problems encountered in the process
of developing private refineries in Nigeria were discussed. These are government
regulation of refined petroleum product prices, low profit margin in a regulated
economy, hostile environment, lack of funds and lack of crude…
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The present dependency on petroleum based bio-plastics is not only harmful to the environment
but also to the economy. A remarkable research in the production and applications of plastics in
the renewable energy has being ongoing. The problems, solutions and prospects of sustainable
plastic production forms are the focus of this write-up. The petroleum based plastics were
compared with bio-plastics. The best way of producing plastics from surplus renewable sources
such as coconut fibre, bamboo, palm fronds, pineapple leaves among…
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Biodiesels obtained from renewable energy sources are considered to be good alternatives to traditional fuel
sources due to their environmental friendliness. Purification of the biodiesel upper-rich phase composition after
transesterification is often influenced by some parameters. This study investigated the influence of temperature
and time interval on the purification of biodiesel upper-rich phase mixture composition of Jatropha oil biodiesel
system consisting of Jatropha oil biodiesel, methanol, glycerol at (20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C, 50°C,
55°C, 60°C) and (2, 4,…
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Steam reforming of biomass bio-oil is a technique of producing bio-hydrogen which is an important biofuel.
Acetic acid is a major constituent of biomass bio-oil especially its aqueous phase. In this study, the thermodynamic
analysis of the steam reforming of acetic acid was considered in conjunction with the utilising of a novel
statistical approach. Response surface methodology was used to elucidate possible interactions of the process
factors and be used to develop regression models for the prediction of percentage molar…
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The Nigerian basic metal and steel industry as we know it today is sickly. This paper seeks to
highlight the present day challenges of the industry and proffer solutions achievable via
academia-industry partnership and government playing its roles effectively. Information were
sourced through Oral interviews with key members of the industry, plant visits and literature
review. In this paper, a summary of the history of the Nigerian basic metal and steel industry
is provided, the major challenges of the industry…
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This work is aimed at selective solvent extraction of palmitic acid from Plantain Stalk Residues (PSR). Plantain stalk
obtained from the waste stream of a local market was used in this study. The stalk was grated and the extract obtained during the
grating process was oven dried at a temperature of 70oC. The residue referred to as NT was characterized using Gas
chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) to ascertain the presence of fatty acids with much preference given to palmitic acid.
This…
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Agriculture is an important sector in most African countries. Large amounts of quantities of residues are
produced during the processing and consumption of agricultural products. The feedstock that was studied are banana
(Musa spp.) peels, orange (Citrus sinensis) peels, sweet lime (Citrus limetta) peels, lemon (Citrus limon) peels and
jackfruit (Artocarpus heterphyllus) peel. ASPEN plus V8.8 was used to develop a steady-state model for the pyrolysis
of the different fruit peel wastes. The pyrolysis simulation was done at 500oC and…
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In view of the need to enhance the mechanical properties of vulcanisates, this study evaluated the potentials of carbonised wood-flour in this regard. Samples of wood-flour were carbonised at 600 ? and 700 ?. The characterisation results revealed an increase in the pH (7.14 to 8.99) and loss on ignition (76.32 to 82.04%) of the carbonised wood-flour with increase in the carbonisation temperature. There was also a significant decrease in moisture content (0.21 to 0.15%) and bulk density (0.63 to…
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Pinch analysis incorporated in Aspen energy analyzer software was
used in this study in the design, optimization and identification of areas
requiring improvement in the heat exchanger networks of naphtha
hydrotreating units of a Kaduna Refinery naphtha hydrotreating unit
(NHU) with the aim of minimizing total cost. The result obtained was
an optimal total cost (OTC) of $263.1/s from the initial target cost
(ITC) of $298.8/s. The target heating and cooling were observed to be
1.395 x107kcal/h and 1.440 x107kcal/h…
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This work examined the suitability of dilute acid pre-treatment for treating waste peels of
Manihot esculenta crantz (tropical specie of cassava) for bioethanol production. Waste cassava
peels constitute an abundant agricultural waste mostly prevalent in Nigeria. Cassava peels were
collected, washed, the brownish parts removed and the white parenchymatous layer dried and
ground into powdery form. Dilute acid pre-treatment was carried out using an autoclave. 100ml
of 0.5% sulphuric acid was added to 30g of the sample to remove the…
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This paper is about the development of a Nigerian Chemical Engineering Curriculum of world class
standards to train indigenous Chemical Engineers that will be instrumental to meeting the Chemical
Engineering related needs of Nigeria. A brief history of the Nigerian Chemical Engineering
undergraduate program is presented. The present state of the Curriculum was examined and
compared with the Chemical Engineering Curricula of Universities with well-established Chemical
Engineering Programs outside Nigeria. It was observed that about seventy-five (75) required courses READ MORE Download Staff Profile      



The behaviours and performances of an ideal grafting of 4-chloromethylstyrene onto polyethylene substrates were
predicted/discussed using designed models. (MATLAB) (matrix laboratory) amulti-paradigm numerical computing
environment and fourth-generation programming language. was used as the model simulator due to its very broad
and all-encompassing functions and capabilities. The models designed were compared and contrasted wi th one
another and also with the experimental data for validation. Inferences were drawn on the basis of the findings and
within the confines of the…
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This paper seeks to provide a general overview of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) in
engineering and technology with special emphasis on Disaster Risk Management as it
borders on the Chemical Engineering discipline. Terms such as disaster, risk, risk
management and disaster risk management as it concerns the fields of engineering and
technology are defined to provide a fine background and refresher for the subject matter
under consideration. Hazards identification is established as the basis for risk analysis,
assessment and consequently…
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Due to the increasing yearn to go environment friendly, keen interest has been placed on biofuels, this leads to further
studies and research in biofuels. A search for suitable vegetable/plant oil that can work just as fossil fuels and be ecofriendly
was made. Hence, the study of this work investigates the production of biodiesel from non-edible Hevea
brasiliensis oil. The process was catalysed by two-step acid base transesterification. Reaction parameters, such as
reaction temperature and time were studied. The yield…
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Morphological and mechanical properties of natural rubber filled with palm kernel mesocarp (PKM) were succinctly investigated in this study. Samples of palm kernel mesocarp were washed, dried, ball milled to fine particle size and used in compounding natural rubber with filler loading ranging from 5 to 30 parts per hundred (pph). Properties investigated were tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break, hardness, abrasion resistance and compression set. The results revealed that the tensile strength increased from13.68 to 25.43 ????????????2?, modulus,…
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This work studies the use of the Progressive Diffusion Reaction Model (PDRM) in modelling the graft polymerization of 4 – Chloromethylstyrene unto irradiated polyethylene substrates. The graft polymerization process being modelled is the active step in the synthesis of a novel polymer-based catalyst for biodiesel production. Experimental data for the graft polymerization process and certain process data needed for the modelling were obtained/evaluated from literature. The PDRM was derived from material balance equations on a spherical particle with a hypothetical…
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The work embraced a modified design, construction and test running of an industrial size vertical shaft lime kiln. The lime kiln was 3.0 m tall with internal diameter of 0.6 m. It was designed for a maximum charging of 1.5 tonnes of limestone, while about 250 kg of lime was to be discharged every three hours. This offered the system a semi-batch process. The stability and integrity of the plant installation was good based on the thermal insulation. A calcination…
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The steam reforming of biomass pyrolysis oil is a well-established means of producing the more useful biohydrogen.
Bio-oil has a comparatively low heating value, incomplete volatility and acidity, hence upgrading
to a more useful product is required. Over the years, the experimental conditions of the process have been
studied extensively in the domain of catalysis and process variable optimisation. Sorption enhancement is now
being applied to the system to improve the purity of the hydrogen stream. Lifecycle analyses has revealed…
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This research work show cases the potentials of Itakpe Iron concentrate for magneto-rheological abilities. The concentrate was first ball milled to reduce its size and then subjected to low magnetic strength from magnetic bits in-situ the magnetic fluid. It was determined that temperature affected the fluid inversely, as temperature increased at the shear rates from the viscometer and Newtonian viscosity calculated reduced, giving a negative relationship between temperature and Newtonian viscosity as loading remained constant. The magneto viscous property of…
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Methyl ester also called biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine that is produced from renewable agricultural products…..

 

 

 


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This study deals with the mass transfer evaluation of the graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene unto irradiated polyethylene substrates…

 

 


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Radiation-induced graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene onto a polyethylene substrate was carefully performed…

 

 

 


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In the quest for inexpensive feedstocks for the cost-effective production of liquid fuels, we
have examined gaseous substrates that could be made available at low cost and sufficiently
large scale for industrial fuel production. Here, attempt is made at simulating a new
bioconversion scheme that effectively converts syngas, generated from gasification of natural
gas into lipids that can be used for biodiesel production. An integrated conversion method
comprising a two-stage system. In the first stage, an anaerobic bioreactor converts mixtures READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


 

Polymer catalyst for biodiesel production was developed and the catalytic activity dependence an preparation conditions, ranging from absorbed radiation dose, …..

 

 

 


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This work borders on the techno-economic comparisons between the conventional Fischer-
Tropsch process and a developed Bio-conversion process route for natural gas to liquid fuel
production. The FT and Bio-GTL processes were simulated using natural gas as feed stock.
FT synthesis produced an overall feed conversion of 12.84% to liquid fuel and a wide
distribution of products with more products present in the LPG fraction. A carbon conversion
efficiency of 45.02% was obtained showing the maturity of the technology. On…
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Slug flow is one of the most critical and often encountered flow patterns in the oil and gas industry. It is characterised by intermittency which results in large
fluctuations in liquid holdup and pressure gradient. A proper understanding of its parameters (such as slug holdup) is essential in the design of transport facilities (e.g.
pipelines) and process equipment (slug catchers, separators etc.). In this paper, experimental investigation of slug liquid holdup (defined as the liquid volume fraction
in the slug…
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Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and gamma ray densitometry have found applications in multiphase flows as both have been used to visualize flow patterns in the process, nuclear, chemical and oil-gas industries. However, liquid viscosity is often limited to about 10 cP in most of these applications. This study evaluates the suitability of ECT in the monitoring of multiphase flow consisting of heavy-oil (up to 7500 cP) and gas. Heavy-oil is of interest because of its huge reserves, increasing world energy…
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This paper presents exact solution of displacement fields of thick rectangular plate which was obtained using traditional third order refined theory for the bending of rectangular plates with different support cases under general boundary conditions. The aim of study is static bending analysis of an isotropic rectangular thick plate using analytical method. Total potential energy equation of a thick plate was formulated from the first principle. This equation was subjected to direct variation to obtain three simultaneous direct governing equations…
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This paper studied external-source-excited vibration response of double-bay multi-storey building frames for the effect of joint stiffening on bending moment and joint displacement. One of the frames has normal rigid joints. Three others of the frames have stiffened joints of stiffened lengths: 275mm, 425mm and 775mm respectively. Lumped mass system was the dynamic model adopted. The frames were modeled as those with flexible horizontal members, permitting rotation of joints and having multi degrees of freedom (MDOF). Classical displacement method of…
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