Dr Adama Kenneth Kennedy and K. K. Adama, and M. O. Edoga   (Published 2011)

Dr Kenneth Kennedy
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This work compared the production of oil from the pericarps (peels) of avocado apple using steam
distillation and extraction (direct and indirect leaching) with respect to the yields. An improvised steam
distillation set-up was used at three different steam heating rates. It entailed the comminution of the
sample material suspended on a grid (perforated metal plate) 90mm above the water level and the
application of steam through the material. The steam percolated the material and subsequently vaporized
the oils from the interlocking matrix of the molecular-atomic units of the avocado pericarps. Variations in
time and volume o f water used to generate the steam for the process are as follows: 30, 60, 90 and
120minutes and 1000ml, 1250ml and 1500ml respectively. In contrast, leaching method (direct and
indirect extraction) using two different solvents namely n-hexane and anhydrous ethanol were used. The
extraction was carried out at different particle sizes, times, and the boiling points of the solvents. These
were as follows: 0.75mm, 1.00mm, 1.59mm and 2.00mm; 30, 60 90 and 120minutes; 60
0C and 780C for
n-hexane and anhydrous ethanol respectively. The active principles (oils) from both methods were
processed by to produce high quality refined oil. Finally, the crude and refined oils were characterized to
determine their suitability for industrial applications. The results from the steam distillation revealed that
the heating rate of 2.57ml/min (moderate) gave the maximum oil yield of 59.8% while the results from
leaching (direct and indirect extraction) method at a similar extraction time (120minutes), particle size
(0.75mm), gave optimum oil yields of 21.2% and 23.9% for indirect and direct leaching respectively
using n-hexane, 35.9% and 42.0% for indirect and direct leaching using anhydrous ethanol respectively.
The physicochemical analysis of the refined oil showed that the oil has saponification value of 196.4, acid
value of 5.653, iodine value of 67.7, free fatty acid value of 0.0872, peroxide value of 67.1.27, specific
gravity of 0.90261, viscosity of 181.180cp and refractive index of 1,600. From the results of both methods
of production, it is apparent that steam distillation gave the highest yield (59.8%) of oils than leaching
(42.0%). The properties of the present oils are in conformity with the international standard
1, 2 and as
such, are potential substitutes for the most oils used for cosmetics and pharmaceutical drugs production.

Item Type: Journal article(non-copyrighted)
Format: PDF document,   180.04 KB
Copyright: Creative Commons LicenseCreative Commons license
Keywords: Comparative study, steam distillation, leaching (direct and indirect extraction), Avocado’s pericarps
Department: Chemical Engineering
Field of Study: Engineering- Chemical
Uploaded By: Chukwuemeka Obasi Chijioke
Date Added: 12 Jan 2022 2:37am
Last Modified: 12 Jan 2022
Journal URL:

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