Department Of History and International Studies Journals


Ayodeji Anthony ADULOJU. (2016). “Youth Networks on Facebook and Twitter in the 2015 Elections in Nigeria.” Journal of African Elections, Vol. 15. No. 2. (South Africa)

Abstract

Consequently, this study discovered that not all followers of political parties and politicians on Facebook and Twitter are their supporters. Moreover, the platforms raised the consciousness of Nigerian Youths during the 2015 elections in the area of constructive and destructive arguments directly with politicians, which gave birth to new socio-political…
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Ayodeji Anthony ADULOJU. and Okwechime, Iwebunor. (2016). “Oil and Human Security Challenges in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta.” Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory, Vol. 44, No. 4. (Taylor & Francis, United Kingdom).

Abstract

The study utilized primary and secondary data to examine the oil-induced humansecurity challenges in the Niger Delta; evaluate the role of the Nigerian Government, oilmultinationals and some non-state actors towards human security in the Niger Delta;and analyse the implications of oil-induced human…
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Joshua Tavershima Yange, Dokun Oyeshola and Ayodeji Anthony ADULOJU. (2016). “The Politics of Workers Rights Protection: International Labour Organisation and Promotion of Labour Rights in Manufacturing Industry in Nigeria.” Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory, Vol. 44, No. 3. pp. 267-290 (Taylor & Francis, United Kingdom)

Abstract

Conditions of work in manufacturing industry in Nigeria have generated concerns and the need for improvement. This study examined the level of compliance with International Labour Organization (ILO)…
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Okwechime, Iwebunor, Yange, Joshua T., and Ayodeji Anthony ADULOJU. (2016). “Africa and the Global Economic and Financial Crisis.” World Review of Political Economy, Vol. 7, No. 4. (United Kingdom)

 

Abstract

Capitalist economic and financial activities at the metropolitan centers reached the summit, overheated the world economy and exploded in 2007 in the form of economic meltdown. This unfortunate event had severe economic consequences on the world economy which, initially, African economies,…
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Ayodeji Anthony ADULOJU and Pratt, Omowunmi O. (2015). “Oil, Children and Adolescents in the Contemporary Niger Delta, Nigeria.” Journal of Child and Adolescent Behaviour, Vol. 3, No.3. pp. 201-207 (Los Angeles, USA)

 

Abstract

 



Keywords:
“Oil, Children and Adolescents in the Contemporary Niger Delta, Nigeria.”
byAyodeji Anthony ADULOJU and Pratt, Omowunmi O.is licensed under a


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Ayodeji Anthony ADULOJU and Pratt, Omowunmi O. (2014). “Human Security and Developmental Crisis in the Contemporary West Africa.” Journal of Human Security, Vol. 10, No. 2. pp. 46-58 (Switzerland)

 

Abstract

The last two decades were characterized by severe conflicts in the West Africa subregion. The era of conflict resolution, management and…
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Abstract
Existing literature has investigated the challenges of interstate border dispute, border conflict and their security and developmental implications for the West African sub-region. ECOWAS Free Movement Protocol of Persons was instituted to enhance economic development of West Africa’s citizens. However, studies have shown that the protocol has relatively aided transborder trafficking in persons, drugs, Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW). However, vulnerability of trans-border women traders in the sub-region have received little attention. This study utilized both…
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This is paper is on Historical Perspective of the Nigerian military in Intergroup Relations and Nation Building: The case of Midwestern Region, 1966-1979. The aim of the paper is to add to the scanty existing literature on the contributions of the Nigerian Military on intergroup relations and the nation-state quest for Nation Building. It also aim at educating readers that besides the provision of security, the Nigerian military had in the not too remote past contributed so much…
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Abstract
This paper interrogates the citizenship rights and ethnic contestation in central Nigeria region taking the case of TIV struggle for indigeneship and settler question I independent Nigeria. It posit that the idea of a united plural ethnic Nigeria with common citizenship free from the viruses of sectarian bigotry and other forms of primordial sentiments go against certain pursuits of may patriots and nationalist especially the travails of the TIVS as discussed in this paper. The paper further…
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Abstract
The area studied is Esanland located in the tropical forest region and it formed the Esan Division during the colonial western Nigeria. The area is today administered in five local government areas of the present Edo state, Nigeria. The study shows that the various polities of pre-colonial Esan people were each able to solve their problems arising from their composite nature. Moreover, the study shows that although the area did featured large state political
system learnt from…
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Abstract The main thrust of this paper is the role of history as a way forward from the contemporary socio-economic and political vices of corruption on accountable leadership and lack of good governance that are destroying the fabrics of development and national integration in Nigeria. The growing realization among scholars that, the root and nature of these vices cannot be fully comprehended and addressed without looking inward towards the past especially the era of colonialism and the decades that follows…
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Abstract
This paper examines the corruption in the Nigerian Educational System. It identifies corruption as an obstacle to the set objectives of the sector in the attainment of the nation’s desire for manpower and national development especially in the nascent period of global competition. It also stressed the various links through which corruption is perpetuated in the sector with its impact and consequences. The paper recommends some measures to check the corrupt practices because most scholars agreed that…
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Abstract
Nigerian society is today replete with phenomena that make life “insecure, Brutish, nasty and short”, due to the challenges of incorporating the diverse peoples of Nigeria into a stable national community in order to achieve good democratic governance, for the utmost goal of sustainable development. This has eluded the nation-state since the triumphant enthronement of democratic rule. This paper explores the etiology of such social malaise as ethnic nationalism, and use of violence with a special focus…
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Abstract
This paper is on ethnicity, economic injustice and problem of massive corruption in explaining why good governance eludes Nigeria. The objective of the paper is to contribute to existing literature on why, good governance/democratic governance eludes the nation-state. It is already known by scholars that some contending issues are responsible for this, but without their mentioning of ethnicity, economic injustice and massive corruption as addressed in this paper. With the triumphant enthronement of democratic rule in 1999,…
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Abstract
This paper examined fifteen years of Nigerian democracy: its reflection on national integration, one of the basic dividends expected of any democratic system. The paper aims to bring to the fore why and how Nigerian democracy since 1999 to date is yet to put in place integrative mechanism of its divergent but dynamic nationalities to nationhood. Few works exist about Nigerian Democracy but its effort on national integration is scanty. Thus this paper is timely and relevant…
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Introduction
The historical geography of Nigeria is a largely unexplored field. It is a field in which historians, anthropologists, archaeologists, geographers and the bio-scientists can have very meaningful intellectual and academic discourse. Using the historical approach, the paper studies the. role of geography or natural environment in fostering and sustaining inter-group relations in Nigeria with specific reference to that of Benin (Bini) kingdom and the Esan (Ishan) people both of southern-western Nigeria in present Edo state. This is…
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Abstract
The aim of the paper is to highlight the intrinsic value which the pre-literate Benin and Esan societies attached to their rich history and which they still attach to it today as well as circumstances and occasions for re-enacting the past and the methods adopted for the preservation of their history because it was a vibrant and functional instrument of intraintergroup relations before colonial imposition. In Benin and Esan, history is a bridge between the past and…
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Abstract
Human Capital as it concerns trained, competent personnel and professionals in Africa have been leaving in droves. The cross roads between better offers and opportunities in distant lands of the West, Canada, the United States of America amongst others and the inherent problems hampering the unfolding of full potentials for those who remain are examined in this paper it further examines salient literatures on the trends and movement patterns of human capital as well as the factors…
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Abstract
The paper examined the intra-group relations among the Ekpoma through a confederated political organization, a unified judicial system, economic cooperation and interdependence, socio-religious interactions among others. The paper argued that there were evidences to suggest that to a large extent, their relationship was bilateral and cordial before the imposition of colonial rule dictated by historical antecedents and geographical situation. The paper
provides a close focus on the intra-group dynamics of the Ekpoma confederated villages, which was sometimes…
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Abstract
In recent times, no issue has generated widespread public comment in Nigeria more than the issues of leadership and ethno-religious threats rocking the country and the bitter consequences on national integration. To achieve this feat, the paper examines the concepts of leadership, ethno-religious crisis and national integration I Nigeria making use of library research and content analysis approach common to all historians. Apart from the above mentioned, the paper establishes when national integration became an issue in…
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Abstract
Nigeria, a country with an estimated population of over 170 million attained independence in 1960. Since then there has been the challenge of incorporating the diverse peoples into a stable and single national community and sustainable democracy in order to achieve the utmost goal of sustainable developn2ent. This paper with particular focus on happenings in the country since 1960 bring into a bold relief the need to revisit, reinvigorate and reposition the neglected Nigerian history in our…
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Abstract
This paper attempts to examine the major production endeavors that developed among the seven Ora villages of present Edo State before the imposition of British colonial economy. These precolonial activities attracted other countries from far and near to Ora Land. Without doubt, during that period, the economy reached its peak of growth and development with all the uper structures of a developed society which the colonial administration built on for the eventual economic exploitation of Ora land.…
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Abstract
The paper examines the issues about continuity and change in Nigeria using the British interference in the political activities in Esanland. The baseline for the discussion with the con quest and imposition of colonial rule in Esanland of present Edo state Nigeria, colonial political were put in place by the British colonial master to facilitate the exploitation of human and material resources beneficial to the industrial development of Britain. Their imperial policies found expression in the political…
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Abstract
Modern democracy is built on the existence of mediatory institutions through which differences in preferences and opinions are harmonized. At the informal realm, political parties, serving not only as lubricant of democracy but also as a major conduit in the democratization process represents one of such vital institutions. Indeed, the relationship between political parties and democracy is both symbiotic and axiomatic. However, such relationship can, only, be sustained to the enrichment of the political system where the…
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Abstract
This paper titled: religion as an instrument for enhancing national security and harmonious coexistence in Nigeria is timely because one of the national aspiration of Nigerians and the international community since our independence in 1960 is that religion as experienced or demonstrated in some nations of Europe, Asia and America should be an instrument of national security and vehicle of peace that triggers meaningful development. But at the contrary, “Religion” in Nigeria has become the main instrument…
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Abstract
The invasion and occupation of Esanland is part of the general British conquest and occupation of Nigeria which was a consequence of the revoked royal chapter to the Royal Niger Company (RNC) in 1899. A deliberate act by which the British sought to guarantee her interest in the South West of the Niger. The intention of this paper therefore is to examine the invasion and resistance to British colonial rule in Esanland. In the examination, attention would…
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Abstract
The paper looks at Sustainability of Nigeria’s Democracy and the contending issues of National Integration: The way forward. So far, the only form of government through which individual and collective liberties are possible is democracy. However, for Democracy so serve the end purpose of the electors-national integration, freedom and dignity of all people, the bottlenecks against the consideration of democracy such as corruption, electoral malpractices, arbitrariness, violence, thuggery and material poverty of majority of the electorate must…
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Abstract
This work examines the rampant acts of terrorism in Nigeria and its implications on nation building and National Integration because the several established cases of assassination, bombing, kidnapping militancy and insurgency especially in the north east of Northern Nigeria indicated the radicalization of some Nigerians heralding the surfacing act of terrorism. This article interrogates the origin, causes and implications of these terrorist acts especially those of the Boko Haram bombing campaign on Nigeria’s quest to achieve nation…
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This paper is on The 1897 British Conquest of Benin Kingdom and its Impact on Benin-Esan Intergroup Relations. The paper will contribute to existing literature on pre-colonial intergroup contacts; and debunk the negative misconceptions about Benin-Esan, relations which some scholars saw as master-servant relations that only benefited Benin kingdom. From the work, it is evident that before 1897 the fall of Benin kingdom was imminent because the activities of the British through treaties and diplomacy and offensive activities…
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Abstract
Nigeria, a country with an estimated population of about 140 million attained independence in 1960. Since then there has been the challenge of incorporating the diverse peoples into a stable and United Nation community with the utmost goal of attaining creditable development. This paper thus with particular focus on the socio-political happenings in the country since independence bring into the limelight a bold relief the need to revisit, reinvigorate and reposition the neglected archaeology of the Nigerian…
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Abstract
One of the major problems facing most ethnic groups today is the religion of their past by historians. However, the effort of some historians in writing the history of Nigerian minority ethnic groups during the pre-colonial Era is far from being complete. A great deal in this aspect, especially that of the minorities that experienced invasions and subjugation in the hands of the larger societies is yet to be achieved to fill the gaps in our knowledge…
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Abstract
This paper examined federalism and the quest for national integration in Nigeria. The study explores the conceptual definition of federalism by various scholars. To this end therefore, the paper discuses major contending issues affecting the federal stability of Nigeria such as; ethnic minority agitations, state creation, structural imbalance, indigenes/settlers dichotomy federal character principles etc. The method adopted for this research was secondary data collection. Hence, for effective stability, development and national integration, the paper concludes tha4 the…
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Abstract

This work is concerned with the imposition of British colonial rule and the foundations of a newEconomy in Esanland which transformed the society economically in an extremely narrow, manner that revolved around the particular interests of colonialism. The transformation, it must be noted, did not reproduce Esan society in the mirrow image of Western European. Although colonialism introduced some elements of capitalism into the society, the capitalist mode of production as a system was not introduced and…
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Abstract
This paper is a study of the impact of trade and commercial activities in pre-colonial Esan society, up to 1900. The objective to add to the existing literature debunking the Eurocentric idea that Esan economy was a backward and uninteresting during the pre-colonial period. Without doubt, during this period, the Esan economy reached its peak, sustained with all the extra and superstructure of a developed society. Moreover, trade and commerce the topic this paper, trade in pre-colonial…
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Previous studies on regionalism in West Africa affirm that one of the reasons
for integration in the region is the selfish political interests of Nigeria. However, the
benefits of regional cooperation amongst West African states cannot be sacrificed on
the altar of the political interests of Nigeria as previously claimed. Undoubtedly, the
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has embarked on different
integration schemes to foster cooperation and development among member-states; the
most important among all is the Free…
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The spate of instability in the West African Sub-region has for long drawn attention not only from the academia but also in everyday discussion. The sub-region has a long history of conflict with evidence of not one but myriads of causes to those conflicts, which many studies have shed light on. Currently, the sub-regional power and the main peace keeper (Nigeria) is waging war against the Boko Haram terrorist group on its own soil with grave consequence for the West…
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The Westphalian narrative has been the compass of International Relations (IR). It sustains a Eurocentric hegemony in IR theory – ascribing to itself the nucleus of the international system. Indeed, international theory acts as a tool that legitimizes Anglo-American imperialism in international studies. For instance, colonization in Africa entails the force-feeding of African materials into the Western-centric structures. This phenomenon produced a distinct (hybrid) system with exotic challenges in Africa. The manifestation of these challenges in the decolonization…
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Despite the general awareness of militia activities vis-a-vis the erosion of state power in the Westsern and Central African borderlands, this work advances this discourse by examining the historicity of transnational networking and predation in Northerstern Nigeria.  Even though this study recognizes the resources derived across porous state boundaries by militias and bandits overtime, it emphasizes the weakened position of the statecentric paradigm of borderland security, and concludes by opening up a new dialogue on the possible role…
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This article examines the phenomenon of town-twinning be-tween Idiroko (Nigeria) and Igolo (Benin). While transboundary town twinning is the integration of settlements across distinct state territo-ries—an emerging pattern of borderland urban evolution—this seems to be a new impact of the colonially determined borders in West Africa. Despite the challenges posed by the partition of West African culture ar-eas, town twinning has more recently turned into an established form of regional integration based on a “bottom-up” rather than “top-down”…
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This article examines the politics of public policies characterised by increased securitisation of Nigeria’s national boundary from 2014 to 2017. While the regulation appears on paper to discourage transborder crime, capital outflow and sustain a favourable balance of payment, the existing armoury of West African border literature argues otherwise. What is new in the transborder dynamics of West Africa? What informs government’s border policies in Nigeria? In answering these questions, this study provides a template for a reassessment…
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The study of social networks in the context of epidemiology is not nwe in the literature.  However, most of these studies are based on official trade and migration statistics.  Otherwise, they focus on a sample population within a national territory.  Hence, there is the dearth of scholarly writings on the place of sociospatial networks in epidemic surveillance across state boundaries with remarkable informal transational flows.  This is particularly the cse in West Africa, where trans.border interactions are predominatly…
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The duo-field of historical archaeology is increasingly being recognized around the world for its contributions. However, most of the existing surveys have concentrated on the coastal and hinterland locations in West Africa. Whereas, the ethnographic cum archival study of West African borderlands abounds in the literature, there is the dearth of the comparative analysis of these sources in tandem with the archaeological findings of material culture. Thus, this paper seeks to open up a new dialogue on the…
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Until the beginning of the 21st century, Africa received marginal attention in the international security calculus of the United States. However, the September 9, 2001 attacks against the U.S recouped U.S’ security permutations on Africa. Again, the geometric expansion of the economies of India and China intensified these countries’ thirst for African oil and this does not appear to favour the U.S economic interests in Africa. Hence, securing America’s economic interests on the African continent became a matter…
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It is unarguable that Nigeria’s democratic experience since independence has not been wonderful. A lot of factors have been adduced as being responsible for the poor performance of Nigeria’s political   governance. Findings have shown that among other things, the lack of political and civic education have significantly served as a gulf between the government and the governed thereby imperilling the country. Political and civic education serve as a bridge which connects the ordinary masses to the governmental processes…
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Professor Christopher Bankole Ndubuisi Ogbogbo, as a scholar, has made his mark in Niger Delta/legal history. Besides this, his avid interest in and passionate zest for quality historical scholarship conduced to his producing a couple of essays which interrogate the current challenges of historical scholarship in Nigeria as well as the prospects of the historical discipline. His Ibadan background not only helps to fossilise his belief in the salience of history in the development of the country but…
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The legality and practice of caste systems in most Igbo communities in the precolonial era appear to negate the avowals that primordial Igbo society was egalitarian. Being, an unjust social system, antithetical to democracy, the Osu and Ohu caste system – the two predominant caste systems in Igboland could not outlive the colonial era, as it was officially outlawed in 1956. This prohibition notwithstanding, most Igbo communities carried on the system up to present times. The deleterious impact of the…
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The concept of South-South Cooperation has become a popular theme in international development discourse and has played a key role in solidifying unity among developing countries. However, it has metamorphosed from being interested in geo-politics and opposition to imperialism, global racism, colonialism and the cold war, to emphasis on geo-economics and political economy. In fact, the recent focus of South-South Cooperation has been on achieving sustainable development and growth for the whole South. In this regard, some development…
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Globalization has become a whirlwind which is enveloping everything in its path. The conventional wisdom, especially, from the purveyors and the advantaged West, is that it is not only here to stay: it is good for everyone irrespective of the corners of the earth in which they live. However, this assumption is not corroborated by practical obtainability, to say the least. Indeed, globalization is the strongest phenomenon of change; it not only permeates cultures, economies and social organizations…
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It is an incontestable fact that since the end of the Nigeria-Biafra war in 1970, illicit small arms proliferation has witnessed an exponential surge in the country. The factors that explain this situation are traceable to the nature/exigencies of the war, as well as the poor demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR) of combatant troops and civilians at the end of the war. Besides, the poor security architecture of the post-war Nigerian society, coupled with the intensifying culture of…
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The international arena where the intercourse between and amongst sovereign states occur accommodates cooperation and competition but most often, it is characterized by conflicts. The ‘zerosum’ nature of the international system actuates states to always design strategies and policies which ensure that their interests are protected at all times. It has always been that the state(s) with the preponderance of clout always sets the agenda on security hence, the ‘Bush Doctrine’ formally known as “the National Security Strategy…
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Underdevelopment has been a serious problem for African States. The problem is undoubtedly exacerbated by the nature of the colonization of the continent by European powers. Thus, in the last years of colonialism, some African leaders were far-sighted enough to realize that hopes for the continent’s development lies on cooperative integration and pooling of resources together. However, the difference in political interests and philosophies amongst African leaders led to the creation of a Union that was not radical…
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One can argue that the growth of Pentecostalism in Nigeria owes a lot to the rising spate of poverty and squalor in the country. When individuals began to seek spiritual solutions for their physical problem, Pentecostal churches with their prosperity messages logically appeared as anchor point. Pentecostalism - a term which describes the set of Christians who believe so much in the help of the Holy Spirit for overcoming life challenges – both spiritually and physically readily became…
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It is undeniable and regrettable that Nigeria has colossally failed in the provision of security for her teeming masses, which ipso facto, is the most essential condiment of statehood. Myriad of reasons have been identified as being responsible for the poor security system of Nigeria, whereas several policies have fashioned to stem this ugly tide. Nonetheless, Nigerian national security continues to remain porous and crisis- prone. The panacea to the lingering national security palaver has remained the topmost…
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The emergence of International Relations (IR) after the First World War as a distinct field, separate from diplomatic history was primarily conditioned by the need to build a special body of knowledge aimed at unravelling the causes of war as well as the prescriptions for peace. In order to arrive at something close to a systematic knowledge of the varied relationships among states, a positivist methodology was found for IR. At the same time, the scholars and practitioners…
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Nigeria’s emergence as a player on the international theatre heralded myriad hope for the African continent. Consequently, Nigeria’s debut in the seemingly anarchical international system (I.S) was fastened to a philosophical praxis that centered unmistakably on African interests and values. However, findings in extant literature indicate that Nigeria has not gained commensurably in predisposing her international relations to be conditioned primarily by African interests and values. With the theoretical binoculars of the Constructivist Theory, and adopting the specific…
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Given that the ‘developed’ North has vigorously resisted the relinquishing of its greatest weapon of global dominance – International Economic Control Mechanisms (IECMs), South – South Cooperation (SSC) was birthed as an alternative development pathway for the countries of the global South. It has metamorphosed from being interested in geo-politics and opposition to imperialism, global racism, colonialism and the cold war, to emphasis on geoeconomics and political economy. However, the emergence of new economic behemoths such as India,…
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The British Colonial government bequeathed a parliamentary system of government to Nigeria at Independence in 1960.  Virtually all the landmark Conferences that gave birth to the Indepencdence Constitution took place in London and the system of governace prescribed for Nigeria was patterned after the British Model of Parliamentary Democracy.  However, from the Second, third and Fourth Republics which lasted between 1979-1983, 1990-1993 and 1999 to the present time respectively, the country has been politically driven by Presidential System…
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Universities early history date back to the 12th Century and 13th Century, where they arose as a means to providing further training on law, theology and medicine, and as centres of study ofr the re-discovered works of Aristotle and the Arab scholars.  This trend continued until the Middle Ages when universities began to be established through royal or ecclesiastical inititive or through migration of students from other universities.  In contemporary time, the Ivory tower as the highest citadel…
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Professor Christopher Bankole Ndubuisi Ogbogbo, as a scholar, has made his mark in Niger Delta/legal history. Besides this, his avid interest in and passionate zest for quality historical scholarship conduced to his producing a couple of essays which interrogate the current challenges of historical scholarship in Nigeria as well as the prospects of the historical discipline. His Ibadan background not only helps to fossilise his belief in the salience of history in the development of the country but…
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Nigeria as a country does not lack intellectuals, famous politicians and natural resources. Both the executive and legislative arms of government usually drawn from the academia of various backgrounds have been initiating promising policies and designing good programmes on socio-economic transformation, without achieving the desired and expected results. Considering the escalating poverty and unemployment which majority of Nigerians face, the government initiates measures towards poverty reduction but ironically, the more the government expects progress from policies and programmes…
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Women played important roles in the nationalist struggle in Nigeria. Through sheered demonstrations, revolts and riots, women openly challenged British colonial authority and their obnoxious policies in different parts of Nigeria. In most of these revolts and protests, many women were injured and killed by British agents in the bid to nip in the bud such anti-colonial struggle. This paper is an attempt to examine the Akpanya women protest of 1940 as part of the general women resistance…
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This study examines the explosion of violent ethno-political conflicts in Central Nigeria in 1960. At the attainment of independence, Nigeria comprised three loosely amalgamated regions which later metamorphosed into three ethnic based political parties namely; the Northern People?s Congress(NPC), National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (N.C.N.C) in the East, and the Action Group (AG) in the West. With this political structure, the seed of minority domination was already sown. The main thrust of this paper is the…
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The Tiv are the largest single ethnic group in the Middle Benue Basin in Central Nigeria. They are the majority ethnic group in the present Benue State, Nigeria where they are found in fourteen Local Government Areas. The Tiv are estimated to number about five million people and about three million out of this number live in Benue State. (Okpeh,2007:2). The rest of them are found in considerable numbers in Southern Taraba State, parts of Nassarawa State, Plateau…
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Surmounting the widespread challenges of underdevelopment has remained cardinal policy goals of successive administrations in Nigeria especially with the return of civil rule in Nigeria on 29th May 1999. Although the federal, state and local governments have committed staggering proportions of revenues to addressing problems of poverty, inequality, unemployment, infrastructural decay, among others, the quality and quantity of government development programmes however remains abysmally pygmy. This paper examines the role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in Igalaland, North…
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The phenomenon of ethnic militias started in Nigeria in the 1990s, through it roots stretch back to the colonial period. Ethnic militias are youth based groups formed with the purpose of promoting and protecting the parochial interests of their ethnic groups and whose activities sometimes involve the use of violence. Their emergence in Nigeria also signaled some lack of confidence in the federal government’s ability to protect it citizens through the police and other security agencies. Ethnic militias…
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Globalization is an age-long historical phenomenon that is contemporaneously defining the pace and pendulum of the economic, political and socio-cultural trajectories of nation-states world-wide. In most third world countries especially in Africa and Nigeria in particular, this capitalist process has been most pervasive and devastating particularly in Nigeria’s drive toward rapid industrialization. Thus, the Ajaokuta Iron and Steel Complex that was built by the Federal government of Nigeria in 1979 as a panacea to the multi-variegated crisis…
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Entrepreneurship is one of the most important drivers of job creation and economic growth, and is crucial for the development of a vibrant formal small and medium-sized business sector. It enhances productivity, growth and can also help find practical business solutions to social and environmental challenges, including climate change. Despite its importance, entrepreneurship is not always actively encouraged in all developing countries through dedicated policy initiatives. Both economic theory and practice demonstrate that entrepreneurship may generate social gains…
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Ethnic militia groups in Nigeria, no doubt constitute one of the major threats to democratic consolidation in Africa’s most populous nation-state. The exit of military from politics in 1999 and the return of multiparty democracy opened up the Pandora for the proliferation of ethnic based violent armed militias in different parts of the country. The activities of militias in contemporary North Central Nigeria have become a source of worry to government and the public alike as the…
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This paper gives a dispassionate analysis of the Tiv-Jukun conflicts in the Middle Benue Basin from 1976-2005. This is situated against a historical background of a peaceful coexistence between the two ethnic groups from pre-colonial times, that of hostilities in the colonial and even the contemporary period. Colonialism imposed artificial borders that took no cognizance of the people living on the land, sowing the seeds of conflicts and ushering in the politics of divide and rule. This placed…
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This paper is a dispassionate analysis of the activities of the dissident militant group, the Boko Haram, operating in the North-Eastern part of Nigeria since 2009. An in-depth analysis into the group’s nefarious activities has shown the level of fear and anxiety created in the minds of Nigerians giving different interpretations to its existence. Is the Boko Haram a political militia created to destabilise Nigeria by the political opponents of the administration who lost out in previous elections?…
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Before the last quarter of the 20th century, history was a broad based discipline. It was universally studied and subject to objective scrutiny and analyses with the historian doing his best to reconstruct history from available facts. History at this time was percieved as an academic discipline based on empirical knowledge, objectivity and facts. As an academic discipline, history is more than 2400 years old.1 For most of this period it essentially told the truth about events…
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This study is concerned with the nature and dynamics of indigenous or traditional African medicine in contemporary Nigeria. It illuminates the multi-faceted and often neglected roles that African native ‘doctors’ have been playing in addressing the health challenges of the people since the pre-literate era. With a particular focus on the Akpanya community of Igala land, Kogi State, North Central Nigeria, this study reveals that more than half of the people of Akpanya community still have high preference…
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This paper examines the origin of disputes between two neighboring ethnic groups in Nigeria; the Tiv of Benue State and the Udam of Cross River State and the nexus of these disputes to the establishment of the markets found in their respective geographical areas, the Tsar Market (for the Tiv) and the Obudu Market (for the Udam).The paper also examines the rationale for disputes that arise over the location of market places that are placed within the same…
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This paper examines the violent political conflicts that erupted in Tivland, Central Nigeria, at the attainment of political independence in 1960. At independence, Nigeria constituted of three regions representing the three major ethnic groups and political parties namely, the North (Hausa-Fulani), represented by the Northern People’s Congress (NPC), the East (Igbo),represented by National Council of Nigerian Citizens. (N.C.N.C), and the West (Yoruba), represented by the Action Group (AG). There was an attempt by the ruling northern oligarchy to…
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